• A Later Bronze Age Shield from South Cadbury, Somerset, England

      Coles, J.M.; Leach, P.; Minnitt, S.C.; Tabor, R.; Wilson, Andrew S. (1999)
      A shield of beaten bronze from South Cadbury, Somerset, England is the first shield to be discovered by excavation on an archaeological site. The shield lay in a silt-filled Bronze Age ditch on a spur of land below Cadbury Castle. A stake was thrust through the shield. The paper considers the recovery and conservation of the shield, the technology of metal shields and the evidence for the ritual deposition of shields in the Later Bronze Age of western Europe.
    • LC-MS/MS Confirms That COX-1 Drives Vascular Prostacyclin whilst Gene Expression Pattern Reveals Non-Vascular Sites of COX-2 Expression.

      Kirkby, N.S.; Zaiss, A.K.; Urquhart, Paula; Jiao, J.; Austin, P.J.; Al-Yamani, M.; Lundberg, M.H.; MacKenzie, L.S.; Warner, T.D.; Nicolaou, Anna; et al. (2013-07-09)
      There are two schools of thought regarding the cyclooxygenase (COX) isoform active in the vasculature. Using urinary prostacyclin markers some groups have proposed that vascular COX-2 drives prostacyclin release. In contrast, we and others have found that COX-1, not COX-2, is responsible for vascular prostacyclin production. Our experiments have relied on immunoassays to detect the prostacyclin breakdown product, 6-keto-PGF1α and antibodies to detect COX-2 protein. Whilst these are standard approaches, used by many laboratories, antibody-based techniques are inherently indirect and have been criticized as limiting the conclusions that can be drawn. To address this question, we measured production of prostanoids, including 6-keto-PGF1α, by isolated vessels and in the circulation in vivo using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and found values essentially identical to those obtained by immunoassay. In addition, we determined expression from the Cox2 gene using a knockin reporter mouse in which luciferase activity reflects Cox2 gene expression. Using this we confirm the aorta to be essentially devoid of Cox2 driven expression. In contrast, thymus, renal medulla, and regions of the brain and gut expressed substantial levels of luciferase activity, which correlated well with COX-2-dependent prostanoid production. These data are consistent with the conclusion that COX-1 drives vascular prostacyclin release and puts the sparse expression of Cox2 in the vasculature in the context of the rest of the body. In doing so, we have identified the thymus, gut, brain and other tissues as target organs for consideration in developing a new understanding of how COX-2 protects the cardiovascular system.
    • Le Castellan (Istres, Bouches-du-Rhône) : resultats de prospections géophysique

      Armit, Ian; Horsley, T.; Marty, F. (2016)
      Two seasons of geophysical prospection (magnetic, resistance and ground-penetrating radar) were conducted at the Iron Age oppidum of Le Castellan, Istres, Bouches-du-Rhône, in order to determine the utility of these techniques for sites in this region. The survey revealed numerous strong anomalies, of which many ran parallel or perpendicular to one another. These are the sorts of responses one might expect from the remains of buried stone wall foundations; this interpretation is supported by the presence, on the west side of the site, of exposed walls on the same alignment as certain of the geophysical anomalies. Overall, the evidence suggests a network of buried buildings and road-ways across the oppidum. One particularly substantial building was identified towards the centre of the site, through the presence of a strong resistance anomaly of distinctly rectilinear form. It appears to represent the remains of a buried stone building with three rooms. In conclusion, the results provide strong encouragement for the further application of geophysical survey in this region
    • Leading academic change: experiences of academic staff implementing team-based learning

      Nelson, M.; Tweddell, Simon (2017-09)
      Team-based learning (TBL) is a collaborative learning model that shifts classroom time from a teacher-centred to student-centred approach. TBL emphasises accountability to learning, teamwork, immediate feedback, peer feedback, and critical thinking. While many educators value the increased student engagement that results from TBL, the transition from traditional teaching methods to TBL poses challenges. Using a qualitative approach, this study aimed to explore the experiences of 26 academic staff in the United Kingdom who implemented TBL in the higher education setting. Thematic analysis of interview text generated eight themes related to preparing academics to use TBL, challenges related to TBL, and engagement of students with the curriculum. Derived from these themes, a set of recommendations for supporting academic staff who transition to TBL was developed.
    • Learning adaptation knowledge to improve case-based reasoning.

      Craw, S.; Wiratunga, N.; Rowe, Raymond C. (2006)
      Case-Based Reasoning systems retrieve and reuse solutions for previously solved problems that have been encountered and remembered as cases. In some domains, particularly where the problem solving is a classification task, the retrieved solution can be reused directly. But for design tasks it is common for the retrieved solution to be regarded as an initial solution that should be refined to reflect the differences between the new and retrieved problems. The acquisition of adaptation knowledge to achieve this refinement can be demanding, despite the fact that the knowledge source of stored cases captures a substantial part of the problem-solving expertise. This paper describes an introspective learning approach where the case knowledge itself provides a source from which training data for the adaptation task can be assembled. Different learning algorithms are explored and the effect of the learned adaptations is demonstrated for a demanding component-based pharmaceutical design task, tablet formulation. The evaluation highlights the incremental nature of adaptation as a further reasoning step after nearest-neighbour retrieval. A new property-based classification to adapt symbolic values is proposed, and an ensemble of these property-based adaptation classifiers has been particularly successful for the most difficult of the symbolic adaptation tasks in tablet formulation.
    • A learning development-faculty collaborative exploration of postgraduate research student mental health in a UK university

      Delderfield, Russell; Ndoma-Egba, Mathias; Riches-Suman, Kirsten; Boyne, J. (2020-10)
      Mental ill-health is an escalating problem in higher education. Not only does this impact students’ ability to learn, it can lead to poor completion, with learners opting to withdraw from studies, even if attainment has been satisfactory. The aim of this study was to gain insight about perceptions of poor mental health from postgraduate research students in a diverse UK university and canvas opinion regarding how the University could improve this. A short, pragmatic survey with basic quantitative and qualitative responses was distributed. This was analysed by a team comprising the learning developer responsible for postgraduate researcher learning development, academics and a doctoral student. The study found that poor mental health was evident, with over three quarters of respondents reporting some experience of mental ill-health. We identified five areas in need of attention: University Systems, Supervisor Training, Well-being Monitoring, Building Networks, and Finance. Sources of University-based stress were finance, administrative support, and an environment where a perception that poor mental health was an expectation rather than a problem was experienced. Students preferred to access support outside the academic environment. This is the first study of its kind at a diverse, plate-glass UK university, to consider research student mental ill-health, with a staff-student team working with data, and the learning developer spear-heading changes across postgraduate research. These findings have already influenced university strategy, staff training, and induction practices. The synthesis of the five areas could be used to visualise where further work is needed to improve mental health in these learners.
    • Learning to use illumination gradients as an unambiguous cue to three dimensional shape

      Harding, Glen; Harris, J.M.; Bloj, Marina (2012)
      The luminance and colour gradients across an image are the result of complex interactions between object shape, material and illumination. Using such variations to infer object shape or surface colour is therefore a difficult problem for the visual system. We know that changes to the shape of an object can affect its perceived colour, and that shading gradients confer a sense of shape. Here we investigate if the visual system is able to effectively utilise these gradients as a cue to shape perception, even when additional cues are not available. We tested shape perception of a folded card object that contained illumination gradients in the form of shading and more subtle effects such as inter-reflections. Our results suggest that observers are able to use the gradients to make consistent shape judgements. In order to do this, observers must be given the opportunity to learn suitable assumptions about the lighting and scene. Using a variety of different training conditions, we demonstrate that learning can occur quickly and requires only coarse information. We also establish that learning does not deliver a trivial mapping between gradient and shape; rather learning leads to the acquisition of assumptions about lighting and scene parameters that subsequently allow for gradients to be used as a shape cue. The perceived shape is shown to be consistent for convex and concave versions of the object that exhibit very different shading, and also similar to that delivered by outline, a largely unrelated cue to shape. Overall our results indicate that, although gradients are less reliable than some other cues, the relationship between gradients and shape can be quickly assessed and the gradients therefore used effectively as a visual shape cue.
    • Lecozotan (SRA-333): a selective serotonin1A receptor antagonist that enhances the stimulated release of glutamate and acetylcholine in the hippocampus and possesses cognitive-enhancing properties.

      Harder, Josie A.; Womack, Matthew D.; Schechter, L.E.; Smith, D.L.; Childers, W.; Rosenzweig-Lipson, S.; Sukoff, S. (2005)
      Recent data has suggested that the 5-HT1A receptor is involved in cognitive processing. A novel 5- HT1A receptor antagonist, 4-cyano-N- [(2R)-[4- (2,3-dihydrobenzo [1,4] dioxin-5-yl) piperazin-1-yl] propyl]-N-pyridin-2-yl-benzamide hydrochloride (lecozotan), which has been characterized in multiple in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic assays as a drug to treat cognitive dysfunction, is reported. In vitro binding and intrinsic activity determinations demonstrated that lecozotan is a potent and selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. Using in vivo microdialysis, lecozotan (0.3 mg/kg sc) antagonized the decrease in hippocampal extracellular 5-HT induced by a challenge dose (0.3 mg/kg sc) of 8 OH-DPAT and had no effects alone at doses 10-fold higher. Lecozotan significantly potentiated the potassium chloride-stimulated release of glutamate and acetylcholine in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Chronic administration of lecozotan did not induce 5-HT1A receptor tolerance or desensitization in a behavioral model indicative of 5- HT1A receptor function. In drug discrimination studies, lecozotan (0.01-1 mg/kg im) did not substitute for 8-OH-DPAT and produced a dose-related blockade of the 5-HT1A agonist discriminative stimulus cue. In aged rhesus monkeys, lecozotan produced a significant improvement in task performance efficiency at an optimal dose (1 mg/kg po). Learning deficits induced by the glutamatergic antagonist MK-801 (assessed by perceptually complex and visual spatial discrimination) and by specific cholinergic lesions of the hippocampus (assessed by visual spatial discrimination) were reversed by lecozotan (2 mg/kg im) in marmosets. The heterosynaptic nature of the effects of lecozotan imbues this compound with a novel mechanism of action directed at the biochemical pathologies underlying cognitive loss in AD.
    • Lessons learned from England’s Health Checks Programme: using qualitative research to identify and share best practice

      Ismail, Hanif; Kelly, S. (2015)
      This study aimed to explore the challenges and barriers faced by staff involved in the delivery of the National Health Service (NHS) Health Check, a systematic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment and management program in primary care. Data have been derived from three qualitative evaluations that were conducted in 25 General Practices and involved in depth interviews with 58 staff involved all levels of the delivery of the Health Checks. Analysis of the data was undertaken using the framework approach and findings are reported within the context of research and practice considerations. Findings indicated that there is no ‘one size fits all’ blueprint for maximising uptake although success factors were identified: evolution of the programme over time in response to local needs to suit the particular characteristics of the patient population; individual staff characteristics such as being proactive, enthusiastic and having specific responsibility; a supportive team. Training was clearly identified as an area that needed addressing and practitioners would benefit from CVD specific baseline training and refresher courses to keep them up to date with recent developments in the area. However there were other external factors that impinged on an individual’s ability to provide an effective service, some of these were outside the control of individuals and included cutbacks in referral services, insufficient space to run clinics or general awareness of the Health Checks amongst patients. The everyday experiences of practitioners who participated in this study suggest that overall, Health Check is perceived as a worthwhile exercise. But, organisational and structural barriers need to be addressed. We also recommend that clear referral pathways be in place so staff can refer patients to appropriate services (healthy eating sessions, smoking cessation, and exercise referrals). Local authorities need to support initiatives that enable data sharing and linkage so that GP Practices are informed when patients take up services such as smoking cessation or alcohol harm reduction programmes run by social services.
    • Letter to the Editor concerning “A systematic review of controlled trials on visual stress using intuitive overlays or colorimeter"

      Griffiths, P.G.; Taylor, R.H.; Henderson, L.M.; Barrett, Brendan T. (2017)
      We read with interest the review written by Evans and Allen, and published in the Journal of Optometry, in July, 2016.
    • Letter to the Editor: Authors' response.

      Griffiths, P.G.; Taylor, R.H.; Henderson, L.M.; Barrett, Brendan T. (2017)
      We thank Professors Evans and Wilkins for their interest in our systematic review.(1) We have reached the same conclusion as previous systematic reviews published in 2008(2) and 2014(3) and a review prepared for the New Zealand Ministry for Health in 2009.(4) Even the ‘alternative systematic review’ prepared by Professors Evans and Allen about which we have significant misgivings concludes that ‘larger and rigorous randomised controlled trials of interventions for visual stress are required’.(5)
    • Levels of state and trait anxiety in patients referred to ophthalmology by primary care clinicians: a cross sectional study

      Davey, Christopher J.; Harley, C.; Elliott, David B. (2013-06-13)
      Purpose There is a high level of over-referral from primary eye care leading to significant numbers of people without ocular pathology (false positives) being referred to secondary eye care. The present study used a psychometric instrument to determine whether there is a psychological burden on patients due to referral to secondary eye care, and used Rasch analysis to convert the data from an ordinal to an interval scale. Design Cross sectional study. Participants and Controls 322 participants and 80 control participants. Methods State (i.e. current) and trait (i.e. propensity to) anxiety were measured in a group of patients referred to a hospital eye department in the UK and in a control group who have had a sight test but were not referred. Response category analysis plus infit and outfit Rasch statistics and person separation indices were used to determine the usefulness of individual items and the response categories. Principal components analysis was used to determine dimensionality. Main Outcome Measure Levels of state and trait anxiety measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results State anxiety scores were significantly higher in the patients referred to secondary eye care than the controls (p<0.04), but similar for trait anxiety (p>0.1). Rasch analysis highlighted that the questionnaire results needed to be split into “anxiety-absent” and “anxiety-present” items for both state and trait anxiety, but both subscales showed the same profile of results between patients and controls. Conclusions State anxiety was shown to be higher in patients referred to secondary eye care than the controls, and at similar levels to people with moderate to high perceived susceptibility to breast cancer. This suggests that referral from primary to secondary eye care can result in a significant psychological burden on some patients.
    • Lexical decisions in adults with low and high susceptibility to pattern-related visual stress: a preliminary investigation

      Gilchrist, James M.; Allen, P.M. (2015-04-14)
      Pattern-related visual stress (PRVS) is a form of sensory hypersensitivity that some people experience when viewing high contrast repeating patterns, notably alternating dark and light stripes. Those susceptible to PRVS typically have a strong aversion to such stimuli, and this is often accompanied by experiences of visual discomfort and disturbance. The patterns most likely to elicit symptoms of PRVS have a square-wave grating configuration of spatial frequency ~3 cycles/degree. Such stimuli are characteristic of printed text in which lines of words and the spaces between them present a high contrast grating-like stimulus. Consequently, much printed reading material has the potential to elicit PRVS that may impair reading performance, and this problem appears to be common in individuals with reading difficulties including dyslexia. However, the manner in which PRVS affects reading ability is unknown. One possibility is that the early sensory visual stress may interfere with the later cognitive word recognition stage of the reading process, resulting in reading performance that is slower and/or less accurate. To explore the association of PRVS with word recognition ability, lexical decision performance (speed and accuracy) to words and pronounceable non-words was measured in two groups of adults, having low and high susceptibility to PRVS. Results showed that lexical decisions were generally faster but less accurate in high-PRVS, and also that high-PRVS participants made decisions significantly faster for words than for non-words, revealing a strong lexicality effect that was not present in low-PRVS. These findings are novel and, as yet, unconfirmed by other studies.
    • Lhx2 differentially regulates Sox9, Tcf4 and Lgr5 in hair follicle stem cells to promote epidermal regeneration after injury

      Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Meier, N.; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Sharov, A.A.; Sharova, T.Y.; Ahmed, Mohammed I.; Rapisarda, Valentina; Lewis, Christopher J.; Fessing, Michael Y.; Ruenger, T.M.; et al. (2011)
      The Lhx2 transcription factor plays essential roles in morphogenesis and patterning of ectodermal derivatives as well as in controlling stem cell activity. Here, we show that during murine skin morphogenesis, Lhx2 is expressed in the hair follicle (HF) buds, whereas in postnatal telogen HFs Lhx2(+) cells reside in the stem cell-enriched epithelial compartments (bulge, secondary hair germ) and co-express selected stem cell markers (Sox9, Tcf4 and Lgr5). Remarkably, Lhx2(+) cells represent the vast majority of cells in the bulge and secondary hair germ that proliferate in response to skin injury. This is functionally important, as wound re-epithelization is significantly retarded in heterozygous Lhx2 knockout (+/-) mice, whereas anagen onset in the HFs located closely to the wound is accelerated compared with wild-type mice. Cell proliferation in the bulge and the number of Sox9(+) and Tcf4(+) cells in the HFs closely adjacent to the wound in Lhx2(+/-) mice are decreased in comparison with wild-type controls, whereas expression of Lgr5 and cell proliferation in the secondary hair germ are increased. Furthermore, acceleration of wound-induced anagen development in Lhx2(+/-) mice is inhibited by administration of Lgr5 siRNA. Finally, Chip-on-chip/ChIP-qPCR and reporter assay analyses identified Sox9, Tcf4 and Lgr5 as direct Lhx2 targets in keratinocytes. These data strongly suggest that Lhx2 positively regulates Sox9 and Tcf4 in the bulge cells, and promotes wound re-epithelization, whereas it simultaneously negatively regulates Lgr5 in the secondary hair germ and inhibits HF cycling. Thus, Lhx2 operates as an important regulator of epithelial stem cell activity in the skin response to injury.
    • The lichen flora of Hull, with particular reference to zonal distribution and environmental monitoring

      Seaward, Mark R.D. (2004)
      The role of lichens as environmental monitors is widely recognised. Not only are they valuable as indicators of habitat stability and enyironmental continuity, but they are also effectiye in monitoring environmental quality. more particularly air and soil (and more recently water) pollution. In the past. the main role of lichens in this context has been to monitor sulphur dioxide air pollution. especially stable and rising levels (Seaward 1993). Howeyer, it has also been shown that lichens arc effective monitors of falling levels of gaseous sulphur dioxide and indeed of other pollutants. some of which are manifesting themselves as a consequence of the reduction in the former; of particular interest in this respect is the use of lichens to detect and determine the extent of qualitative changes in air pollution such as the impact of acid rain and hypertrophication (Seaward 1997: Seaward & Coppins 2(04).
    • Lichen flora of the West Yorkshire conurbation - Supplement VII (1999-2004)

      Seaward, Mark R.D.; Henderson, A.; Hitch, C.J.B (2005)
    • Lichenological exploration of Algeria: historical overview and annotated bibliography, 1799-2013

      Amrani, S.; Nacer, A.; Noureddine, N.E.; Seaward, Mark R.D. (2015-04)
      Despite more than two centuries of almost uninterrupted surveys and studies of Algerian lichenology, the history and lichen diversity of Algeria are still poorly understood. During the preparation of a forthcoming checklist of Algerian lichens it was considered necessary to provide the present historical overview of lichenological exploration of the country from 1799 to 2013, supported by a reasonably comprehensive annotated bibliography of 171 titles.
    • Lichens as agents of biodeterioration

      Seaward, Mark R.D. (2015)
      One of the major roles lichens play in shaping the natural world, both physically and biologically, is as agents in soil development: formerly considered only in a geological context, recent research has shown that they are capable of biodeteriorating stone substrata within a relatively short timescale. Chemical alteration of the substratum is achieved by the disruptive action of many species, particularly those capable of producing an oxalate at the thallus–substratum interface . The oxalate contributes significantly to the bulk and composition of the thallus itself and persists as an obvious encrustation after the lichen’s death. In the past, these disfiguring oxalate residues on ancient monuments have been variously interpreted as resulting from former mechanical/chemical renovation treatments, atmospheric pollution , and climatic weathering. The origin and nature of oxalate accretions, the factors involved in pedogenesis , and the development of lichen mosaics are reviewed. Aesthetic disfigurement versus physical damage to stonework is considered, and various aspects of stonework conservation are discussed.