• H-89 inhibits transient outward (Ito) and inward rectifier (IK1) potassium currents independently of pka-mediated phosphorylation in isolated rat ventricular myocytes

      Hussain, Munir; Bracken, N.; Kent, W.; Pearman, C. (2006)
      Voltage clamp was used to investigate the effects of N-[2-p-bromo-cinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-89), a potent inhibitor of PKA, on transient outward K+ current (Ito) and inward rectifying K+ current (IK1) in rat cardiac muscle. Initial experiments, performed using descending voltage ramps, showed that H-89 inhibited both the outward and inward ramp currents in a concentration-dependent manner at concentrations between 5 and 60 ¿mol l¿1. A similar degree of inhibition was observed when Ito and IK1 were recorded using square wave depolarising and hyperpolarising voltage steps, respectively. The IC50 was 35.8 ¿mol l¿1 for Ito and 27.8 ¿mol l¿1 for IK1 compared to 5.4 ¿mol l¿1 for L-type Ca2+ current (ICa). The Hill coefficients for Ito, IK1 and ICa were ¿1.97, ¿1.60 and ¿1.21, respectively. In addition to inhibiting Ito amplitude, H-89 also accelerated the time to peak and the rate of voltage-dependent inactivation so that the time course of Ito was abbreviated. Paired-pulse protocols were performed to study the effects of H-89 on steady-state activation and inactivation as well as recovery from voltage-dependent inactivation. H-89 produced a concentration-dependent rightward shift in voltage-dependent activation but had no significant effect on steady-state inactivation. Recovery from voltage-dependent inactivation was delayed, although this was only visible at the highest concentration (60 ¿mol l¿1) used. In experiments investigating the effects of elevated cyclic AMP, the ß-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline and the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A had no major effects on Ito or IK1. Data suggest that the effects of H-89 on K+ currents are more complex than simple inhibition of PKA-mediated phosphorylation.
    • H-bond acceptor parameters for anions

      Pike, Sarah J.; Hutchinson, J.J.; Hunter, C.A. (2017-05)
      UV/vis absorption titrations have been used to investigate the formation of H-bonded complexes between anionic H-bond acceptors (HBAs) and neutral H-bond donors (HBDs) in organic solvents. Complexes formed by three different HBDs with 15 different anions were studied in chloroform and in acetonitrile. The data were used to determine self-consistent HBA parameters (β) for chloride, bromide, iodide, phosphate diester, acetate, benzoate, perrhenate, nitrate, triflimide, perchlorate, hexafluorophosphate, hydrogen sulfate, methyl sulfonate, triflate, and perfluorobutyl sulfonate. The results demonstrate the transferability of H-bond parameters for anions between different solvents and different HBD partners, allowing reliable prediction of anion recognition properties in other scenarios. Carboxylates are the strongest HBAs studied, with β parameters (≈ 15) that are significantly higher than those of neutral organic HBAs, and the non-coordinating anion hexafluorophosphate is the weakest acceptor, with a β parameter comparable to that of pyridine. The effects of ion pairing with the counter-cation were found to be negligible, provided small polar cations were avoided in the less polar solvent (chloroform). There is no correlation between the H-bonding properties of the anions and the pKa values of the conjugate acids.
    • H-bond donor parameters for cations

      Pike, Sarah J.; Lavagnini, E.; Varley, L.M.; Cook, J.L.; Hunter, C.A. (2019)
      UV/Vis absorption and NMR spectroscopy titrations have been used to investigate the formation of complexes between cations and neutral H-bond acceptors in organic solvents. Complexes formed by two different H-bond acceptors with fifteen different cations were studied in acetone and in acetonitrile. The effects of water and ion pairing with the counter-anion were found to be negligible in the two polar solvents employed for this study. The data were used to determine self-consistent H-bond donor parameters (α) for a series of organic and inorganic cations; guanidinium, primary, tertiary and quaternary ammonium, imidazolium, methylpyridinium, lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. The results demonstrate the transferability of α parameters for cations between different solvents and different H-bond acceptor partners, allowing reliable prediction of cation recognition properties in different environments. Lithium and protonated nitrogen cations form the most stable complexes, but the α parameter is only 5.0, which is similar to the neutral H-bond donor 3-trifluoromethyl, 4-nitrophenol (α = 5.1). Quaternary ammonium is the weakest H-bond donor investigated with an α value of 2.7, which is comparable to an alcohol. The α parameters for alkali metal cations decrease down the group from 5.0 (Li+) to 3.5 (Cs+).
    • H2S does not regulate proliferation via T-type Ca2+ channels

      Elies, Jacobo; Johnson, E.; Boyle, J.P.; Scragg, J.L.; Peers, C. (2015-06)
      T-type Ca2+ channels (Cav3.1, 3.2 and 3.3) strongly influence proliferation of various cell types, including vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and certain cancers. We have recently shown that the gasotransmitter carbon monoxide (CO) inhibits T-type Ca2+ channels and, in so doing, attenuates proliferation of VSMC. We have also shown that the T-type Ca2+ channel Cav3.2 is selectively inhibited by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) whilst the other channel isoforms (Cav3.1 and Cav3.3) are unaffected. Here, we explored whether inhibition of Cav3.2 by H2S could account for the anti-proliferative effects of this gasotransmitter. H2S suppressed proliferation in HEK293 cells expressing Cav3.2, as predicted by our previous observations. However, H2S was similarly effective in suppressing proliferation in wild type (non-transfected) HEK293 cells and those expressing the H2S insensitive channel, Cav3.1. Further studies demonstrated that T-type Ca2+ channels in the smooth muscle cell line A7r5 and in human coronary VSMCs strongly influenced proliferation. In both cell types, H2S caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of proliferation, yet by far the dominant T-type Ca2+ channel isoform was the H2S-insensitive channel, Cav3.1. Our data indicate that inhibition of T-type Ca2+ channel-mediated proliferation by H2S is independent of the channels’ sensitivity to H2S.
    • The Hair

      Wilson, Andrew S. (2008)
    • Hair after Death

      Wilson, Andrew S.; Tobin, Desmond J. (2010)
      The hair follicle, for all its highly complex morphogenesis and life-long cycling, generates individual fibers that can (given the right conditions) persist long after the death of their host, about whom they can continue to tell tales. Much of this robustness is embodied by the unique physicochemical structure of the hair shaft which limits any significant post-biogenic change. This chapter outlines the value of hair to both archaeological and forensic investigation, specifically highlighting the significance of the incremental rate of hair growth. This property enables retrieval of detailed time-resolved information for changes in diet and physiological change, toxicology, exposure to pollutants, and use of controlled substances, in addition to individualisation using DNA.
    • Hair and nail

      Wilson, Andrew S.; Gilbert, M.T.P. (2007)
    • Hair as a Bioresource in Archaeological Chemistry

      Wilson, Andrew S. (2005)
      This authoritative book combines contributions from experts in academic, governmental and industrial environments, to provide a unique, comprehensive look at: - Why hair can serve as an invaluable bio-resource in toxicology, with up-to-date reviews on hair growth, hair fibre formation and hair pigmentation - Information (including regulatory details) on the exposure of hair (and by extension the body) to drug and non-drug chemicals and pollutants - Toxicological issues relevant to the use of hair products (including colourants, shampoos and depilatories) - The ability of hair to capture information on personal identity, chemical exposure, and environmental interactions - How hair can provide an understanding of human life from archaeological and historical perspectives - Future direction in the use of hair in toxicology Hair in Toxicology: An Important Biomonitor is ideal as a reference and guide to investigations in the biomedical, biochemical and pharmaceutical sciences at the graduate and post graduate level.
    • Hair as a geochemical recorder: ancient to modern

      Thompson, A.H.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Ehleringer, J.R. (2014)
    • Hair as a source of ancient DNA

      Gilbert, M.T.P.; Tobin, Desmond J.; Wilson, Andrew S. (2009)
    • Hair Degradation

      Wilson, Andrew S. (2000)
    • Hair follicle bulge stem cells appear dispensable for the acute phase of wound re-epithelialization

      Garcin, C.L.; Ansell, David M.; Headon, D.J.; Paus, R.; Hardman, M.J. (2016-05)
      The cutaneous healing response has evolved to occur rapidly, in order to minimize infection and to re‐establish epithelial homeostasis. Rapid healing is achieved through complex coordination of multiple cell types, which importantly includes specific cell populations within the hair follicle (HF). Under physiological conditions, the epithelial compartments of HF and interfollicular epidermis remain discrete, with K15+ve bulge stem cells contributing progeny for HF reconstruction during the hair cycle and as a basis for hair shaft production during anagen. Only upon wounding do HF cells migrate from the follicle to contribute to the neo‐epidermis. However, the identity of the first‐responding cells, and in particular whether this process involves a direct contribution of K15+ve bulge cells to the early stage of epidermal wound repair remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that epidermal injury in murine skin does not induce bulge activation during early epidermal wound repair. Specifically, bulge cells of uninjured HFs neither proliferate nor appear to migrate out of the bulge niche upon epidermal wounding. In support of these observations, Diphtheria toxin‐mediated partial ablation of K15+ve bulge cells fails to delay wound healing. Our data suggest that bulge cells only respond to epidermal wounding during later stages of repair. We discuss that this response may have evolved as a protective safeguarding mechanism against bulge stem cell exhaust and tumorigenesis.
    • A "hair-raising" history of alopecia areata

      Broadley, David; McElwee, Kevin J. (2020-03)
      A 3500‐year‐old papyrus from ancient Egypt provides a list of treatments for many diseases including “bite hair loss,” most likely alopecia areata (AA). The treatment of AA remained largely unchanged for over 1500 years. In 30 CE, Celsus described AA presenting as scalp alopecia in spots or the “windings of a snake” and suggested treatment with caustic compounds and scarification. The first “modern” description of AA came in 1813, though treatment still largely employed caustic agents. From the mid‐19th century onwards, various hypotheses of AA development were put forward including infectious microbes (1843), nerve defects (1858), physical trauma and psychological stress (1881), focal inflammation (1891), diseased teeth (1902), toxins (1912) and endocrine disorders (1913). The 1950s brought new treatment developments with the first use of corticosteroid compounds (1952), and the first suggestion that AA was an autoimmune disease (1958). Research progressively shifted towards identifying hair follicle‐specific autoantibodies (1995). The potential role of lymphocytes in AA was made implicit with immunohistological studies (1980s). However, studies confirming their functional role were not published until the development of rodent models (1990s). Genetic studies, particularly genome‐wide association studies, have now come to the forefront and open up a new era of AA investigation (2000s). Today, AA research is actively focused on genetics, the microbiome, dietary modulators, the role of atopy, immune cell types in AA pathogenesis, primary antigenic targets, mechanisms by which immune cells influence hair growth, and of course the development of new treatments based on these discoveries.
    • Halide Control of N,N-Coordination versus N,C-Cyclometalation and Stereospecific Phenyl Ring Deuteration of Osmium(II) p-Cymene Phenylazobenzothiazole Complexes

      Needham, R.J.; Habtemariam, A.; Barry, Nicolas P.E.; Clarkson, G.; Sadler, P.J. (2017-11-09)
      We report the synthesis of halido Os(II) p-cymene complexes bearing bidentate chelating phenylazobenzothiazole (AZBTZ) ligands. Unlike the analogous phenylazopyridine (AZPY) complexes, AZBTZ-NMe2 is capable of both N,N-coordination to Os(II) and cyclometalation to form N,C-coordinated species. N,C-Coordination occurs via an azo nitrogen and an ortho carbon on the aniline ring, as identified by 1H NMR and X-ray crystallography of [Os(p-cym)(N,N-AZBTZ-NMe2)Cl]PF6 (1a), [Os(p-cym)(N,N-AZBTZ-NMe2)Br]PF6 (2a), [Os(p-cym)(N,C-AZBTZ-NMe2)Br] (2b), and [Os(p-cym)(N,C-AZBTZ-NMe2)I] (3b). The N,C-coordinated species is more stable and is not readily converted to the N,N-coordinated complex. Analysis of the crystal structures suggests that their formation is influenced by steric interactions between the p-cym and AZBTZ-NMe2 ligands: in particular, larger monodentate halide ligands favor N,C-coordination. The complexes [Os(p-cym)(N,N-Me2-AZBTZ-NH2)Cl]PF6 (4) and [Os(p-cym)(N,N-Me2-AZBTZ-NH2)I]PF6 (5) were synthesized with methyl groups blocking the ortho positions on the aniline ring, forcing an N,N-coordination geometry. 1H NMR NOE experiments confirmed hindered rotation of the arene ligand and steric crowding around the metal center. Complex 2b exhibited unexpected behavior under acidic conditions, involving regiospecific deuteration of the aniline ring at the meta position, as observed by 1H NMR and high-resolution ESI-MS. Deuterium exchange occurs only under acidic conditions, suggesting an associative mechanism. The calculated partial charges on 2b show that the meta carbon is significantly more negatively charged, which may account for the regiospecificity of deuterium exchange.
    • Halo-substituted azobenzenes adsorbed at Ag(111) and Au(111) interfaces: Structures and optical properties

      Hughes, Zak E.; Baev, A.; Prasad, P.N.; Walsh, T.R. (2017-05-19)
      The adsorption of azobenzene (AB), ortho fluoro-azobenzene (FAB) and ortho chlor-azobenzol (ClAB), in both the cis and trans isomers, at the Au(111) and Ag(111) surfaces is investigated using plane-wave density functional calculations with the revPBE-vdW-DF functional. The resulting adsorption energies and internal structures of AB adsorbed to both metal surfaces are in broad agreement with available experimental data. In the gas phase, FAB and ClAB feature a significant reduction in the energy difference between the two isomeric states, compared with AB. This relative reduction in the energy difference is still significant for the adsorbed form of FAB but is only weakly apparent for ClAB. The absorption spectra of the molecules have also been calculated, with the halogen substituents generating significant changes in the gas phase, but only a modest difference for the adsorbed molecules.
    • Health care at a crossroads in Bangladesh

      Majumder, Md A.A. (2014)
      Though Bangladesh has made tremendous strides forward in health and other socio-economic indicators in the recent past, basic needs of health still remain largely unmet and only less than half of the population has access to basic healthcare. The health spending is far below the optimum level which is needed to scale up essential health intervention. Bangladesh is also experiencing a critical and chronic shortage and imbalance of skill mix and deployment of health workforce. The important achievements in health indicators include life expectancy, infant mortality, and vaccinations. However, overall burden of mortality and morbidity in most of the key health indicators is higher compared to other regional countries. Despite remarkable progress, except child mortality, targets are not expected to be met by 2015 if the prevailing trends persist in several areas. Major reforms are needed in health and medical education to ensure quality healthcare for the population of Bangladesh.
    • Heat induced evaporative antisolvent nanoprecipitation (HIEAN) of itraconazole

      Mugheirbi, N.A.; Paluch, Krzysztof J.; Tajber, L. (2014-08)
      Itraconazole (ITR) is an antifungal drug with a limited bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. In this study, ITR was used to investigate the impact of nanonisation and solid state change on drug’s apparent solubility and dissolution. A bottom up approach to the production of amorphous ITR nanoparticles (NPs), composed of 100% drug, with a particle diameter below 250 nm, using heat induced evaporative antisolvent nanoprecipitation (HIEAN) from acetone was developed. The NPs demonstrated improved solubility and dissolution in simulated gastrointestinal conditions when compared to amorphous ITR microparticles. NPs produced with polyethylene glycol (PEG) or its methoxylated derivative (MPEG) as a stabiliser enabled the production of smaller NPs with narrower particle size distribution and enhanced apparent solubility. MPEG stabilised NPs gave the greatest ITR supersaturation levels (up to 11.6 ± 0.5 μg/ml) in simulated gastric fluids. The stabilising polymer was in an amorphous state. Dynamic vapour sorption data indicated no solid state changes in NP samples with water vapour at 25 °C, while crystallisation was apparent at 50 °C. HIEAN proved to be an efficient method of production of amorphous ITR NPs, with or without addition of a polymeric stabiliser, with enhanced pharmaceutical properties.
    • Heme oxygenase-1 regulates cell proliferation via carbon monoxide-mediated inhibition of T-type Ca2+ channels

      Duckles, H.; Boycott, H.E.; Al-Owais, M.M.; Elies, Jacobo; Johnson, E.; Dallas, M.L.; Porter, K.E.; Giuntini, F.; Boyle, J.P.; Scragg, J.L.; et al. (2015-02)
      Induction of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) affords cellular protection and suppresses proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) associated with a variety of pathological cardiovascular conditions including myocardial infarction and vascular injury. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Over-expression of Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels in HEK293 cells raised basal [Ca2+]i and increased proliferation as compared with non-transfected cells. Proliferation and [Ca2+]i levels were reduced to levels seen in non-transfected cells either by induction of HO-1 or exposure of cells to the HO-1 product, carbon monoxide (CO) (applied as the CO releasing molecule, CORM-3). In the aortic VSMC line A7r5, proliferation was also inhibited by induction of HO-1 or by exposure of cells to CO, and patch-clamp recordings indicated that CO inhibited T-type (as well as L-type) Ca2+ currents in these cells. Finally, in human saphenous vein smooth muscle cells, proliferation was reduced by T-type channel inhibition or by HO-1 induction or CO exposure. The effects of T-type channel blockade and HO-1 induction were non-additive. Collectively, these data indicate that HO-1 regulates proliferation via CO-mediated inhibition of T-type Ca2+ channels. This signalling pathway provides a novel means by which proliferation of VSMCs (and other cells) may be regulated therapeutically.