• Computational Studies of Lipid-Wrapped Gold Nanoparticle Transport Through Model Lung Surfactant Monolayers

      Hossain, S.I.; Gandhi, N.S.; Hughes, Zak E.; Saha, S.C. (2021-02-02)
      Colloidal nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), are promising materials for the delivery of hydrophilic drugs via the pulmonary route. The inhaled nanoparticle drug carriers primarily deposit in lung alveoli and interact with the alveolar surface known as lung surfactants. Therefore, it is vital to understand the interactions of nanocarriers with the surfactant layer. To understand the interactions at the molecular level, here we simulated model lung surfactant monolayers with phospholipid (PL)-wrapped AuNPs at the vacuum-water interface using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. The PL-wrapped AuNPs quickly adsorbed into the surfactant layer, altered the structural properties of the monolayer, and at high concentrations initiated the compressed monolayer to collapse/buckle. Among the surfactant monolayer lipid components, cholesterol adsorbed to the AuNPs preferentially over PL species. The position of the adsorbed PL-AuNPs within the monolayer, and subsequent monolayer perturbation, vary depending on the monolayer phase, monolayer composition, and species of PL used as a ligand. Information provided by these molecular dynamic simulations helps to rationalize why some colloidal nanoparticles work better as nanocarriers than others and aid the design of new ones, to avoid biological toxicity and improve efficacy for pulmonary drug delivery.
    • Interaction of surfactants (edge activators) and skin penetration enhancers with liposomes.

      Barry, Brian W.; El-Maghraby, G.M.; Williams, G.M. (2004)
      Incorporating edge activators (surfactants) into liposomes was shown previously to improve estradiol vesicular skin delivery; this phenomenon was concentration dependent with low or high concentrations being less effective. Replacing surfactants with limonene produced similar behaviour, but oleic acid effects were linear with concentration up to 16% (w/w), beyond which it was incompatible with the phospholipid. This present study thus employed high sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry to probe interactions of additives with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membranes to explain such results. Cholesterol was included as an example of a membrane stabiliser that removed the DPPC pre-transition and produced vesicles with a higher transition temperature (Tm). Surfactants also removed the lipid pre-transition but reduced Tm and co-operativity of the main peak. At higher concentrations, surfactants also formed new species, possibly mixed micelles with a lower Tm. The formation of mixed micelles may explain reduced skin delivery from liposomes containing high concentrations of surfactants. Limonene did not remove the pre-transition but reduced Tm and co-operativity of the main peak, apparently forming new species at high concentrations, again correlating with vesicular delivery of estradiol. Oleic acid obliterated the pre-transition. The Tm and the co-operativity of the main peak were reduced with oleic acid concentrations up to 33.2 mol%, above which there was no further change. At higher concentrations, phase separation was evident, confirming previous skin transport findings.
    • Interactions of a zwitterionic thiophene-based conjugated polymer with surfactants

      Costa, T.; de Azevedo, D.; Stewart, Beverly; Knaapila, M.; Valente, A.J.M.; Kraft, M.; Scherf, U.; Burrows, H.D. (2015-12-15)
      In this paper we investigate the optical and structural properties of a zwitterionic poly[3-(N-(4-sulfonato-1-butyl)-N,N-diethylammonium)hexyl-2,5-thiophene] (P3SBDEAHT) conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE) and its interaction in water with surfactants, using absorption, photoluminescence (PL), electrical conductivity, molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Different surfactants were studied to evaluate the effect of the head group and chain length on the self-assembly. PL data emphasize the importance of polymer–surfactant electrostatic interactions in the formation of complexes. Nevertheless, conductivity and MDS data have shown that nonspecific interactions also play an important role. These seem to be responsible for the spatial position of the surfactant tail in the complex and, eventually, for breaking-up P3SBDEAHT aggregates. SAXS measurements on P3SBDEAHT-zwitterionic cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) surfactant complexes showed a specific structural organization of the system. The CAPB surfactant promotes a structural transition from pure P3SBDEAHT 3-dimensional aggregates (radius of gyration ∼85 Å) to thick cylindrical aggregates (∼20 Å) where all CAPB molecules are associated with the polymer. For molar ratios (in terms of the polymer repeat unit) >1 the SAXS interference maximum of the complexes resembles that of pure CAPB thus suggesting ongoing phase segregation in the formation of a “pure” CAPB phase.
    • Quantitative analysis of surfactant deposits on human skin by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

      Massey, Karen A.; Snelling, Anna M.; Nicolaou, Anna (Wiley, 2010)
      Surfactants are commonly used as cleansing agents and yet there are concerns they may also have a role in skin irritation. Presently, the lack of suitable methods for quantitative and qualitative analysis of surfactant deposition on skin has hindered the in-depth investigation of such effects. Here, we report the application of reverse phase liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) assays for two surfactants commonly used in consumer products, namely sodium lauryl ether sulphate (SLES) and laurylamidopropyl betaine (LAPB), to a baseline study aiming to assess deposition levels on human skin. The linearity of the assays was established at 3-20 ng, with coefficient of variation below 5%. Detection limits were 100 pg for LAPB and 1 ng for SLES; quantitation limits were 500 pg for LAPB and 2.5 ng for SLES. The baseline study was conducted using a panel of 40 healthy volunteers. Skin extract samples were taken in triplicate from forearms, using ethanol. SLES was detected on most volunteers, with 75% of them having SLES deposits in the range of 100-600 ng/cm2. LAPB was detected on the skin of all volunteers with 85% of them having deposit levels within the concentration range of 1-100 ng/cm2. These results demonstrate the extent to which commonly used surfactants remain on the skin during the day. The analytical methods reported here can be applied to the investigation of surfactants in relation to general skin condition and the development and optimisation of new consumer wash products.