• Crystal engineering of active pharmaceutical ingredients to improve solubility and dissolution rates.

      Blagden, Nicholas; de Matas, Marcel; Gavan, Pauline T.; York, Peter (30/07/2007)
      The increasing prevalence of poorly soluble drugs in development provides notable risk of new products demonstrating low and erratic bioavailabilty with consequences for safety and efficacy, particularly for drugs delivered by the oral route of administration. Although numerous strategies exist for enhancing the bioavailability of drugs with low aqueous solubility, the success of these approaches is not yet able to be guaranteed and is greatly dependent on the physical and chemical nature of the molecules being developed. Crystal engineering offers a number of routes to improved solubility and dissolution rate, which can be adopted through an in-depth knowledge of crystallisation processes and the molecular properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients. This article covers the concept and theory of crystal engineering and discusses the potential benefits, disadvantages and methods of preparation of co-crystals, metastable polymorphs, high-energy amorphous forms and ultrafine particles. Also considered within this review is the influence of crystallisation conditions on crystal habit and particle morphology with potential implications for dissolution and oral absorption.
    • Tunable supramolecular gel properties by varying thermal history

      Debnath, S.; Roy, S.; Abul-Haija, Y.M.; Frederix, P.W.J.M.; Ramalhete, S.M.; Hirst, A.R.; Javid, Nadeem; Hunt, N.T.; Kelly, S.M.; Angulo, J.; et al. (2019-06-12)
      The possibility of using differential pre‐heating prior to supramolecular gelation to control the balance between hydrogen‐bonding and aromatic stacking interactions in supramolecular gels and obtain consequent systematic regulation of structure and properties is demonstrated. Using a model aromatic peptide amphiphile, Fmoc‐tyrosyl‐leucine (Fmoc‐YL) and a combination of fluorescence, infrared, circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy, it is shown that the balance of these interactions can be adjusted by temporary exposure to elevated temperatures in the range 313–365 K, followed by supramolecular locking in the gel state by cooling to room temperature. Distinct regimes can be identified regarding the balance between H‐bonding and aromatic stacking interactions, with a transition point at 333 K. Consequently, gels can be obtained with customizable properties, including supramolecular chirality and gel stiffness. The differential supramolecular structures also result in changes in proteolytic stability, highlighting the possibility of obtaining a range of supramolecular architectures from a single molecular structure by simply controlling the pre‐assembly temperature.