• Gaps in Propolis Research: Challenges Posed to Commercialisation and the Need for an Holistic Approach

      Katekhaye, S.; Fearnley, H.; Fearnley, J.; Paradkar, Anant R. (2019)
      Both the season and region in which propolis is collected influence its chemical composition, resulting in variations in biological activity. Significant differences in composition and concentration of certain chemical compounds in propolis make standardisation and quality control challenging. In addition, the lack of uniformity in evaluation methodology and analytical techniques, make it extremely difficult to correlate data across the climatic zones. In this report, we focus on the gaps in propolis research and the challenges they pose for commercialisation, with suggestions as to how we might address them. We hope to stimulate further research which explores the holistic nature of propolis in order to derive a propolis bioactivity standard.