• DNA damage protection by bulk and nano forms of quercetin in lymphocytes of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exposed to the food mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinolone (IQ)

      Habas, Khaled S.A.; Abdulmwli, Mhamoued; Demir, E.; Jacob, B.K.; Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Anderson, Diana (2018-10)
      Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans, describes a group of lung conditions characterised by airflow limitation that is poorly reversible. The airflow limitation usually progresses slowly and is related to an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung to toxic particles. COPD is characterised by oxidative stress and an increased risk of lung carcinoma. The 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is one of a number of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines found mainly in well-cooked meats which are thus part of the regular diet. Antioxidants are very important in order to protect the cells against oxidative damage. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of IQ on the level of DNA damage and susceptibility to a potent mutagen in peripheral blood cells of COPD patients. DNA damage and the frequency of micronuclei (MNi) were evaluated using the Comet and micronucleus assays, respectively. Differential expressions of both mRNA and protein of the endogenous antioxidant enzyme catalase were evaluated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot analysis, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of bulk and nano forms of quercetin and their combination with IQ were examined. Results of the present study clearly demonstrated that MNi frequency in the peripheral blood lymphocytes exhibited a positive correlation with the DNA damage as evident from the different Comet assay parameters. Increase of the endogenous antioxidant catalase also showed there was a stimulation of this enzyme system by IQ. Whereas, the endogenous antioxidant quercetin significantly reduced oxidative stress in COPD patients and healthy individuals.