• Accumulation of quinolinic acid with euro-inflammation: does it mean excitotoxicity?

      Urenjak, Jutta A.; Obrenovitch, Tihomir P. (Kluwer Academic, Plenum Publishers, New York, 2003)
    • Effects of phosphodiesterase inhibition on cortical spreading depression and associated changes in extracellular cyclic GMP.

      Urenjak, Jutta A.; Fedele, E.; Obrenovitch, Tihomir P.; Wang, M. (2004)
      Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a temporary disruption of local ionic homeostasis that propagates slowly across the cerebral cortex, and may contribute to the pathophysiology of stroke and migraine. Previous studies demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) formation promotes the repolarisation phase of CSD, and this effect may be cyclic GMP (cGMP)-mediated. Here, we have examined how phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition, either alone or superimposed on NO synthase (NOS) inhibition, alters CSD and the associated changes in extracellular cGMP. Microdialysis probes incorporating an electrode were implanted into the frontoparietal cortex of anaesthetised rats for quantitative recording of CSD, pharmacological manipulations, and dialysate sampling for cGMP measurements. CSD was induced by cathodal electrical stimulation in the region under study by microdialysis. Extracellular cGMP increased, but only slightly, during CSD. Perfusion of either zaprinast or sildenafil through the microdialysis probe, at concentrations that inhibited both PDE5 and PDE9 (and possibly other PDE), increased significantly extracellular cGMP. Unexpectedly, these levels remained high when NOS was subsequently inhibited with N¿-nitro- -arginine methyl ester hydrochloride ( -NAME, 1 mM). The most interesting pharmacological effect on CSD was obtained with sildenafil. This drug altered neither CSD nor the subsequent characteristic effect of NOS inhibition, i.e. a marked widening of CSD. The fact that NOS inhibition still widened CSD in the presence of the high extracellular levels of cGMP associated with PDE inhibition, suggests that NO may promote CSD recovery, independently of cGMP formation.
    • Effects of the nitric oxide donor, DEA/NO on cortical spreading depression.

      Wang, M.; Obrenovitch, Tihomir P.; Urenjak, Jutta A. (2003)
      Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a transient disruption of local ionic homeostasis that may promote migraine attacks and the progression of stroke lesions. We reported previously that the local inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis with N¿-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) delayed markedly the initiation of the recovery of ionic homeostasis from CSD. Here we describe a novel method for selective, controlled generation of exogenous NO in a functioning brain region. It is based on microdialysis perfusion of the NO donor, 2-(N,N-diethylamino)-diazenolate-2-oxide (DEA/NO). As DEA/NO does not generate NO at alkaline pH, and as the brain has a strong acid-base buffering capacity, DEA/NO was perfused in a medium adjusted at alkaline (but unbuffered) pH. Without DEA/NO, such a microdialysis perfusion medium did not alter CSD. DEA/NO (1, 10 and 100 ¿M) had little effect on CSD by itself, but it reversed in a concentration-dependent manner the effects of NOS inhibition by 1 mM L-NAME. These data demonstrate that increased formation of endogenous NO associated with CSD is critical for subsequent, rapid recovery of cellular ionic homeostasis. In this case, the molecular targets for NO may be located either on brain cells to suppress mechanisms directly involved in CSD genesis, or on local blood vessels to couple flow to the increased energy demand associated with CSD
    • Nitric oxide formation during cortical spreading depression is critical for rapid subsequent recovery of ionic homeostasis

      Urenjak, Jutta A.; Obrenovitch, Tihomir P.; Wang, M. (2009-07-27)
      Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a temporary disruption of local ionic homeostasis that propagates slowly across the cerebral cortex. Cortical spreading depression promotes lesion progression in experimental stroke, and may contribute to the initiation of migraine attacks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of the marked increase of nitric oxide (NO) formation that occurs with CSD. Microdialysis electrodes were implanted in the cortex of anesthetized rats to perform the following operations within the same region: (1) elicitation of CSD by perfusion of high K+ medium; (2) recording of CSD elicitation; (3) application of the NO synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME); and (4) recording of dialysate pH changes. The primary effect of L-NAME (0.3 to 3.0 mmol/L in the perfusion medium) was a marked widening of individual CSD wave, resulting essentially from a delayed initiation of the repolarization phase. This change was due to NO synthase inhibition because it was not observed with the inactive isomer D-NAME, and was reversed by L-arginine. This effect did not appear to be linked to the suppression of a sustained, NO-mediated vascular change associated with the superposition of NO synthase inhibition on high levels of extracellular K+. The delayed initiation of repolarization with local NO synthase inhibition may reflect the suppression of NO-mediated negative feedback mechanisms acting on neuronal or glial processes involved in CSD genesis. However, the possible abrogation of a very brief, NO-mediated vascular change associated with the early phase of CSD cannot be ruled out.