• Amorphous polymeric drug salts as ionic solid dispersion forms of ciprofloxacin

      Mesallati, H.; Umerska, A.; Paluch, Krzysztof J.; Tajber, L. (2017)
      Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is a poorly soluble drug that also displays poor permeability. Attempts to improve the solubility of this drug to date have largely focused on the formation of crystalline salts and metal complexes. The aim of this study was to prepare amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) by ball milling CIP with various polymers. Following examination of their solid state characteristics and physical stability, the solubility advantage of these ASDs was studied, and their permeability was investigated via parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA). Finally, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the ASDs were compared to those of CIP. It was discovered that acidic polymers, such as Eudragit L100, Eudragit L100C==, Carbopol and HPMCAS, were necessary for the amorphization of CIP. In each case, the positively charged secondary amine of CIP was found to interact with carboxylate groups in the polymers, forming amorphous polymeric drug salts. Although the ASDs began to crystallize within days under accelerated stability conditions, they remained fully XCray amorphous following exposure to 90% RH at 25 oC, and demonstrated higher than predicted glass transition temperatures. The solubility of CIP in water and simulated intestinal fluid was also increased by all of the ASDs studied. Unlike a number of other solubility enhancing formulations, the ASDs did not decrease the permeability of the drug. Similarly, no decrease in antibiotic efficacy was observed, and significant improvements in the MIC and MBC of CIP were obtained with ASDs containing HPMCASC") and HPMCASCMG. Therefore, ASDs may be a viable alternative for formulating CIP with improved solubility, bioavailability and antimicrobial activity.
    • Chondroitin-based nanoplexes as peptide delivery systems-Investigations into the self-assembly process, solid-state and extended release characteristics

      Umerska, A.; Paluch, Krzysztof J.; Santos-Martinez, M.J.; Medina, C.; Corrigan, O.I.; Tajber, L. (2015-06)
      A new type of self-assembled polyelectrolyte complex nanocarrier composed of chondroitin (CHON) and protamine (PROT) was designed and the ability of the carriers to bind salmon calcitonin (sCT) was examined. The response of sCT-loaded CHON/PROT NPs to a change in the properties of the liquid medium, e.g. its pH, composition or ionic strength was studied and in vitro peptide release was assessed. The biocompatibility of the NPs was evaluated in Caco-2 cells. CHON/PROT NPs were successfully obtained with properties that were dependent on the concentration of the polyelectrolytes and their mixing ratio. X-ray diffraction determined the amorphous nature of the negatively charged NPs, while those with the positive surface potential were semi-crystalline. sCT was efficiently associated with the nanocarriers (98-100%) and a notably high drug loading (13-38%) was achieved. The particles had negative zeta potential values and were homogenously dispersed with sizes between 60 and 250 nm. CHON/PROT NPs released less than 10% of the total loaded peptide in the first hour of the in vitro release studies. The enthalpy of the decomposition exotherm correlated with the amount of sCT remaining in NPs after the release experiments. The composition of medium and its ionic strength was found to have a considerable influence on the release of sCT from CHON/PROT NPs. Complexation to CHON markedly reduced the toxic effects exerted by PROT and the NPs were compatible and well tolerated by Caco-2 cells.
    • Self-assembled hyaluronate/protamine polyelectrolyte nanoplexes: Synthesis, stability, biocompatibility and potential use as peptide carriers

      Umerska, A.; Paluch, Krzysztof J.; Santos Martinez, M.-J.; Corrigan, O.I.; Medina, C.; Tajber, L. (2014)
      This work investigates a new type of polyelectrolyte complex nanocarrier composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) and protamine (PROT). Small (approximately 60 nm) and negatively charged nanoparticles (NPs) with a polydispersity index of less than 0.2 were obtained with properties that were dependent on the mixing ratio, concentration of polyelectrolytes and molecular weight of HA. Salmon calcitonin (sCT) was efficiently (up to 100%) associated with the NPs, and the drug loading (9.6-39% w/w) was notably high, possibly due to an interaction between HA and sCT. The NPs released ~70-80% of the sCT after 24 hours, with the estimated total amount of released sCT depending on the amount of HA and PROT present in the NPs. The isoelectric point of the NPs was close to pH 2, and the negative surface charge was maintained above this pH. The HA/PROT nanoplexes protected the sCT from enzymatic degradation and showed low toxicity to intestinal epithelial cells, and thus may be a promising oral delivery system for peptides.