• Characterization of TCDD-inducible poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (TIPARP/ARTD14) catalytic activity

      Gomez, A.; Bindesboll, C.; Satheesh, S.V.; Grimaldi, Giulia; Hutin, D.; MacPherson, L.; Ahmed, S.; Tamblyn, L.; Cho, T.; Nebb, H.I.; et al. (2018-12)
      Here, we report the biochemical characterization of the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (TIPARP/ARTD14/PARP7), which is known to repress aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent transcription. We found that the nuclear localization of TIPARP was dependent on a short N-terminal sequence and its zinc finger domain. Deletion and in vitro ADP-ribosylation studies identified amino acids 400–657 as the minimum catalytically active region, which retained its ability to mono-ADP-ribosylate AHR. However, the ability of TIPARP to ADP-ribosylate and repress AHR in cells was dependent on both its catalytic activity and zinc finger domain. The catalytic activity of TIPARP was resistant to meta-iodobenzylguanidine but sensitive to iodoacetamide and hydroxylamine, implicating cysteines and acidic side chains as ADP-ribosylated target residues. Mass spectrometry identified multiple ADP-ribosylated peptides in TIPARP and AHR. Electron transfer dissociation analysis of the TIPARP peptide 33ITPLKTCFK41 revealed cysteine 39 as a site for mono-ADP-ribosylation. Mutation of cysteine 39 to alanine resulted in a small, but significant, reduction in TIPARP autoribosylation activity, suggesting that additional amino acid residues are modified, but loss of cysteine 39 did not prevent its ability to repress AHR. Our findings characterize the subcellular localization and mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of TIPARP, identify cysteine as a mono-ADP-ribosylated residue targeted by this enzyme, and confirm the TIPARP-dependent mono-ADP-ribosylation of other protein targets, such as AHR.
    • Hepatocyte-specific deletion of TIPARP, a negative regulator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, is sufficient to increase sensitivity to dioxin-induced wasting syndrome

      Hutin, D.; Tamblyn, L.; Gomez, A.; Grimaldi, Giulia; Soedling, H.; Cho, T.; Ahmed, S.; Lucas, C.; Kanduri, C.; Grant, D.M.; et al. (2018-10)
      The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxic effects of dioxin (2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; TCDD), which includes thymic atrophy, steatohepatitis, and a lethal wasting syndrome in laboratory rodents. Although the mechanisms of dioxin toxicity remain unknown, AHR signaling in hepatocytes is necessary for dioxin-induced liver toxicity. We previously reported that loss of TCDD-inducible poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (TIPARP/PARP7/ARTD14), an AHR target gene and mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, increases the sensitivity of mice to dioxin-induced toxicities. To test the hypothesis that TIPARP is a negative regulator of AHR signaling in hepatocytes, we generated Tiparpfl/fl mice in which exon 3 of Tiparp is flanked by loxP sites, followed by Cre-lox technology to create hepatocyte-specific (Tiparpfl/flCreAlb) and whole-body (Tiparpfl/flCreCMV; TiparpEx3−/−) Tiparp null mice. Tiparpfl/flCreAlb and TiparpEx3−/− mice given a single injection of 10 μg/kg dioxin did not survive beyond days 7 and 9, respectively, while all Tiparp+/+ mice survived the 30-day treatment. Dioxin-exposed Tiparpfl/flCreAlb and TiparpEx3−/− mice had increased steatohepatitis and hepatotoxicity as indicated by greater staining of neutral lipids and serum alanine aminotransferase activity than similarly treated wild-type mice. Tiparpfl/flCreAlb and TiparpEx3−/− mice exhibited augmented AHR signaling, denoted by increased dioxin-induced gene expression. Metabolomic studies revealed alterations in lipid and amino acid metabolism in liver extracts from Tiparpfl/flCreAlb mice compared with wild-type mice. Taken together, these data illustrate that TIPARP is an important negative regulator of AHR activity, and that its specific loss in hepatocytes is sufficient to increase sensitivity to dioxin-induced steatohepatitis and lethality.