• Patterns of cancer cell sphere formation in primary cultures of human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma and neck nodes

      Saleem, Saira; Jamshed, A.; Faisal, S.; Hussain, R.; Tahseen, M.; Loya, A.; Sutton, Chris W. (2014-12-21)
      Recently a sub-population of cells with stem cell characteristics, reported to be associated with initiation, growth, spread and recurrence, has been identified in several solid tumors including oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). The aim of our pilot study was to isolate CD44+ cancer stem cells from primary cultures of OTSCC and neck node Level I (node-I) biopsies, grow cell spheres and observe their characteristics in primary cultures. Parallel cultures of hyperplastic lesions of tongue (non-cancer) were set up as a control. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect CD44/CD24 expression and magnetic activated cell sorting to isolate CD44+ cell populations followed by primary cell culturing. Both OTSCC and node-I biopsies produced floating spheres in suspension, however those grown in hyperplastic and node-I primary cultures did not exhibit self-renewal properties. Lymph node metastatic OTSCC, express higher CD44/CD24 levels, produce cancer cell spheres in larger number and rapidly (24 hours) compared to node negative OTSCC (1 week) and non-cancer specimens (3 weeks). In addition, metastatic OTSCC have the capacity for proliferation for up to three generations in primary culture. This in vitro system will be used to study cancer stem cell behavior, therapeutic drug screening and optimization of radiation dose for elimination of resistant cancer cells.
    • Stem Cell Organoids in Primary Cultures of Human Non-Malignant and Malignant Colon

      Tariq, S.; Tahseen, M.; Hassan, M.; Masood, M.A.; Khattak, S.; Syed, A.A.; Ahmad, A.H.; Hussain, M.; Yusuf, M.A.; Sutton, Chris W. (2017-05-28)
      A sub-population of cells named cancer stem cells (CSCs) that initiate and promote tumour growth have been demonstrated to exist in several malignancies including colon carcinoma. The objective of our pilot study was to isolate CD133+CD26+CD44+ CSCs from patient colon tumours, culture spheres or organoids and observe their proliferation in primary cultures. Parallel cultures of non-cancer controls from colon normal lining and nonadenomatous polyps were set up. Magnetic activated cell sorting was used to isolate CD133+CD26+CD44+ cell populations followed by primary cell culturing under stem cell culture conditions. Number, cells/organoid and daughter generations of organoids were calculated using phase contrast microscope. Trypan blue exclusion method was used to test the viability of the cells. Both colon tumour and colon non-adenomatous polyp formed floating organoids in suspension; however non-adenomatous polyp cultures did not show self-renewal properties for more than 1 passage. Normal colon singlecell suspension did not create organoids. Metastatic colon tumours rapidly produce cancer cell organoids in less than 24 hours in larger numbers compared to non-metastatic colon tumours (1-3 weeks). Metastatic colon tumour organoids have the ability for proliferation for upto five daughter generations in primary culture compared to three generations for those grown from non-metastatic tumours. This in vitro CSC organoid model will help study colon cancer biology, in particular providing a valuable source of primary cell-derived tissue for studying personalized molecular profiling using ‘omics strategies to direct therapeutic intervention.