• Isostructurality of quinoxaline crystal phases: The interplay of weak hydrogen bonds and halogen bonding

      Saidykhan, Amie; Fenwick, Nathan W.; Bowen, Richard D.; Telford, Richard; Seaton, Colin C. (2021-10)
      Tailoring the physical properties of molecular crystals though the construction of solid solutions requires the existence of isostructural crystals. Simple substitutions of a given molecular framework can give a range of different crystal structures. A set of quinoxaline derivatives, C8H4N2(C6H4X)2,Q3,3′X2, has been investigated (X = F, Cl, Br, I and Me) where kinetic factors generated a set of isostructural crystals for the lighter halogens (F, Cl, Br) alone. Computational analysis shows that the stabilising interactions are maximal for Cl, while DSC studies demonstrate the existence of more stable polymorphs for both F and Br containing systems. Steric factors appear to have a lower contribution than the balance of weaker hydrogen and halogen bonding shown by the Me and I containing systems displaying different packing driven by CH⋯N/CH⋯π bonds and I⋯I bonds respectively.
    • Novel formation of [2M-H](+) species in positive electrospray mass spectra of indoles

      Saidykhan, Amie; Ayrton, Stephen T.; Gallagher, R.T.; Martin, William H.C.; Bowen, Richard D. (2014)
      When subjected to positive ion electrospray ionisation (ESI+) mass spectrometry (MS), indoles with a 3-alkyl substituent show a propensity to form novel [2M-H](+) 'covalently bound dimers'. This process, which appears to be initiated in the nebuliser of the instrument, is mechanistically interesting, analytically useful and potentially significant in organic synthesis. A selection of 2- and 3-substituted indoles have been synthesised and analysed by ESI-MS. The formation of the 'homo' and 'hetero' dimers of these compounds has been investigated using ESI+ mode. The mechanism of formation of the observed 'dimeric' species has been probed by synthesising authentic samples of the dimeric compounds. 'Dimeric' species corresponding to [2M-H](+) have been observed for all 3-substituted indoles studied, but not for indoles substituted in just the 2-position. By infusing equimolar mixtures of labelled and unlabelled indoles through the instrument, the expected approximately statistical mixture of homo- and heterodimeric species has been observed. Further experiments have established that this novel dimerisation occurs in the droplets formed in the nebuliser of the instrument. It has been shown that 3-substituted indoles form [2M-H](+) dimers in high abundance in the spray obtained from the nebiliser of an ESI+ instrument. The mechanism for the dimerisation does not involve the known 2M dimeric species that is readily formed in the solution-phase chemistry of indoles.
    • Structure reactivity relationship in the accelerated formation of 2,3-diarylquinoxalines in the microdroplets of a nebuliser

      Hayat, Nadia; Fenwick, Nathan W.; Saidykhan, Amie; Telford, Richard; Martin, William H.C.; Gallagher, R.T.; Bowen, Richard D. (2019-12-01)
      Competition experiments in which 1,2-phenylenediamine, C6H4(NH2)2, condenses with equimolar quantities of benzil, (C6H5CO)2, and a 3,3'- or 4,4'-disubstituted benzil (XC6H4CO)2 (X = F, Cl, Br, CH3 or CH3O) to form a mixture of 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline and the corresponding 2,3-diarylquinoxaline (Ar = XC6H4) in the microdroplets produced in a nebuliser allow a Hammett relationship with a ρ value of 1.85 to be developed for this accelerated condensation in the nebuliser. This structure reactivity relationship reveals that an appreciable amount of negative charge builds up on the carbon of the carbonyl group of the benzil during the rate-limiting step of the reaction, thus confirming that this process involves nucleophilic addition of the 1,2-phenylenediamine to the benzil. In general, the presence of an electron donating substituent, particularly in the 4 and 4' positions, in the benzil retards the reaction, whereas an electron attracting substituent, especially in the 3 and 3' position, accelerates it.