• Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase rapidly suppresses multiple pro-inflammatory pathways in adipocytes including IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 phosphorylation

      Mancini, S.J.; White, A.D.; Bijland, S.; Rutherford, C.; Graham, D.; Richter, E.A.; Viollet, B.; Touyz, R.M.; Palmer, Timothy M.; Salt, I.P. (2017-01-15)
      Inflammation of adipose tissue in obesity is associated with increased IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α secretion and proposed to contribute to insulin resistance. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates nutrient metabolism and is reported to have anti-inflammatory actions in adipose tissue, yet the mechanisms underlying this remain poorly characterised. The effect of AMPK activation on cytokine-stimulated proinflammatory signalling was therefore assessed in cultured adipocytes. AMPK activation inhibited IL-1β-stimulated CXCL10 secretion, associated with reduced interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase-4 (IRAK4) phosphorylation and downregulated MKK4/JNK and IKK/IκB/NFκB signalling. AMPK activation inhibited TNF-α-stimulated IKK/IκB/NFκB signalling but had no effect on JNK phosphorylation. The JAK/STAT3 pathway was also suppressed by AMPK after IL-6 stimulation and during adipogenesis. Adipose tissue from AMPKα1−/− mice exhibited increased JNK and STAT3 phosphorylation, supporting suppression of these distinct proinflammatory pathways by AMPK in vivo. The inhibition of multiple pro-inflammatory signalling pathways by AMPK may underlie the reported beneficial effects of AMPK activation in adipose tissue.
    • Phosphorylation of Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) links energy sensing to anti-inflammatory signaling

      Rutherford, C.; Speirs, C.; Williams, Jamie J.L.; Ewart, M-A.; Mancini, S.J.; Hawley, S.A.; Delles, C.; Viollet, B.; Costa-Pereira, A.P.; Baillie, G.S.; et al. (2016-11-08)
      AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a pivotal regulator of metabolism at the cellular and organismal levels. AMPK also suppresses inflammation. We found that pharmacological activation of AMPK rapidly inhibited the Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway in various cells. In vitro kinase assays revealed that AMPK directly phosphorylated two residues (Ser515 and Ser518) within the SH2 domain of JAK1. Activation of AMPK enhanced the interaction between JAK1 and 14-3-3 proteins in cultured vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts, an effect which required the presence of Ser515 and Ser518 and was abolished in cells lacking AMPK catalytic subunits. Mutation of Ser515 and Ser518 abolished AMPKmediated inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling stimulated either by the sIL-6Rα/IL-6 complex or by expression of a constitutively active V658F-mutant JAK1 in human fibrosarcoma cells. Clinically used AMPK activators metformin and salicylate enhanced the inhibitory phosphorylation of endogenous JAK1 and inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation in primary vascular endothelial cells. Therefore our findings reveal a mechanism by which JAK1 function and inflammatory signaling may be suppressed in response to metabolic stress and provide a mechanistic rationale for the investigation of AMPK activators in a range of diseases associated with enhanced activation of the JAK-STAT pathway.
    • Regulation of cell survival by sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor S1P1 via reciprocal ERK-dependent suppression of Bim and PI-3-kinase/protein kinase C-mediated upregulation of Mcl-1

      Rutherford, C.; Childs, S.; Ohotski, J.; McGlynn, L.; Riddick, M.; MacFarlane, S.; Tasker, D.; Pyne, S.; Pyne, N.J.; Edwards, J.; et al. (2013-11-21)
      Although the ability of bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) to positively regulate anti-apoptotic/pro-survival responses by binding to S1P1 is well known, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that expression of S1P1 renders CCL39 lung fibroblasts resistant to apoptosis following growth factor withdrawal. Resistance to apoptosis was associated with attenuated accumulation of pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim. However, although blockade of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation could reverse S1P1-mediated suppression of Bim accumulation, inhibition of caspase-3 cleavage was unaffected. Instead S1P1-mediated inhibition of caspase-3 cleavage was reversed by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C (PKC), which had no effect on S1P1 regulation of Bim. However, S1P1 suppression of caspase-3 was associated with increased expression of anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1, the expression of which was also reduced by inhibition of PI3K and PKC. A role for the induction of Mcl-1 in regulating endogenous S1P receptordependent pro-survival responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was confirmed using S1P receptor agonist FTY720- phosphate (FTY720P). FTY720P induced a transient accumulation of Mcl-1 that was associated with a delayed onset of caspase-3 cleavage following growth factor withdrawal, whereas Mcl-1 knockdown was sufficient to enhance caspase-3 cleavage even in the presence of FTY720P. Consistent with a pro-survival role of S1P1 in disease, analysis of tissue microarrays from ER þ breast cancer patients revealed a significant correlation between S1P1 expression and tumour cell survival. In these tumours, S1P1 expression and cancer cell survival were correlated with increased activation of ERK, but not the PI3K/PKB pathway. In summary, pro-survival/anti-apoptotic signalling from S1P1 is intimately linked to its ability to promote the accumulation of pro-survival protein Mcl-1 and downregulation of pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim via distinct signalling pathways. However, the functional importance of each pathway is dependent on the specific cellular context.