• Anticancer water-soluble organoruthenium complexes: synthesis and preclinical evaluation

      Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Azmanova, Maria; Rafols, Laia; Cooper, Patricia A.; Seaton, Colin C.; Shnyder, Steven D. (2022)
      The synthesis, characterisation, and evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxicity of five maleonitriledithiolate-based ruthenium metal complexes bearing various phosphine ligands towards two ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780 and A2780cisR), one non-small-cell lung cancer cell line (H460) and one normal prostate cell line (PNT2) are presented herein. These 18-electron complexes were designed with four water-soluble phosphine ligands to increase the water-solubility character of the corresponding electron-deficient ruthenium complex which showed great in vitro promises, and triphenylphosphine for comparison. The complexes with triphenylphosphine-3,3',3''trisulfonic acid and triphenylphosphine present similar cytotoxicity compared to the 16-electron precursor, with equal cytotoxicity to both A2780 and A2780cisR. Hints at the mechanism of action suggest an apoptotic pathway based on ROS production. No toxicity was observed in preliminary in vivo pilot studies for these two complexes in subcutaneous A2780 and A2780cisR xenograft models, with some evidence of tumour growth delay.
    • Evaluation of the toxicity of two electron-deficient half-sandwich complexes against human lymphocytes from healthy individuals

      Habas, Khaled S.A.; Soldevila Barreda, Joan J.; Azmanova, Maria; Rafols, Laia; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Anderson, Diana; Barry, Nicolas P.E. (2021-02)
      Electron‐deficient half‐sandwich complexes are a class of under‐studied organometallics with demonstrated potential as metallodrug candidates. The present study investigates the effect of two 16‐electron organoruthenium complexes ([( p‐ cym)Ru(benzene‐1,2‐dithiolato)] ( 1 ) and [( p ‐cym)Ru(maleonitriledithiolate)] ( 2 )) on the cell viability of non‐immortalised human lymphocytes from healthy individuals. The genotoxic effects of 1 and 2 in lymphocytes using the Comet and cytokinesis‐block micronucleus assays is also investigated. Gene expression studies were carried out on a panel of genes involved in apoptosis and DNA damage repair response. Results show that the two 16‐electron complexes do not have significant effect on the cell viability of human lymphocytes from healthy individuals. However, an increase in DNA damage is induced by both compounds, presumably through oxidative stress production.
    • Synthesis, characterisation, and in vitro anticancer activity of catalytically active indole-based half-sandwich complexes

      Soldevila-Barreda, Joan J.; Fawibe, K.B.; Azmanova, Maria; Rafols, Laia; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Eke, U.B.; Barry, Nicolas P.E. (2020-10-03)
      The synthesis, characterisation and evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxicity of four indole-based half-sandwich metal complexes towards two ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780 and A2780cisR) and one normal prostate cell line (PNT2) are presented herein. Although capable of inducing catalytic oxidation of NADH and able to reduce NAD+ with high turnover frequencies, in cells and in the presence of sodium formate, these complexes also strongly interact with biomolecules such as glutathione. This work highlights that efficient out-of-cells catalytic activity might lead to higher reactivity towards biomolecules, thus inhibiting the in-cells catalytic processes.