• Can We Create a Circular Pharmaceutical Supply Chain (CPSC) to Reduce Medicines Waste?

      Alshemari, Abdullah; Breen, Liz; Quinn, Gemma L.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar (2020-11-18)
      The increase in pharmaceutical waste medicines is a global phenomenon and financial burden. The Circular Economy, as a philosophy within the pharmaceutical supply chain, aims to promote waste reduction, maximise medicines value, and enable sustainability within this supply chain (increasing circularity). Circularity strategies for pharmaceuticals are not currently implemented in many countries, due to quality and safety barriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the application of circular economy principles can minimise pharmaceutical waste and support sustainability in the pharmaceutical supply chain; Methods: a detailed narrative literature review was conducted in order to examine pharmaceutical waste creation, management, disposal, and the application of circular economy principles; Results: the literature scrutinised revealed that pharmaceutical waste is created by multiple routes, each of which need to be addressed by pharmacists and healthcare bodies through the Circular Economy 9R principles. These principles act as a binding mechanism for disparate waste management initiatives. Medicines, or elements of a pharmaceutical product, can be better managed to reduce waste, cost, and reduce negative environmental impacts through unsafe disposal. the study findings outline a Circular Pharmaceutical Supply Chain and suggests that it should be considered and tested as a sustainable supply chain proposition.
    • The case for mobile cancer care units: an NHS team's experience

      Booth, C.; Dyminksi, P.; Rattray, Marcus; Quinn, Gemma L.; Nejadhamzeeigilani, Zaynab; Bickley, L.; Seymore, T. (2021-05-07)
      This article reports the use of a mobile cancer care unit (Cancer Van) to provide continuity of care to patients with cancer who utilise the services of Airedale NHS Foundation Trust. The article contains data that shows the resilience of this service during the Covid19 pandemic and provides evidence that this type of service is beneficial for patient care.
    • Improving the quality of insulin prescribing for people with diabetes being discharged from hospital

      Bain, A.; Silcock, Jonathan; Kavanagh, S.; Quinn, Gemma L.; Fonseca, I. (BMJ, 2019-08)
      Medication errors involving insulin in hospital are common, and may be particularly problematic at the point of transfer of care. Our aim was to improve the safety of insulin prescribing on discharge from hospital using a continuous improvement methodology involving cycles of iterative change. A multidisciplinary project team formulated locally tailored insulin discharge prescribing guidance. After baseline data collection, three ‘plan-do-study-act’ cycles were undertaken over a 3-week period (September/ October 2018) to introduce the guidelines and improve the quality of discharge prescriptions from one diabetes ward at the hospital. Discharge prescriptions involving insulin from the ward during Monday to Friday of each week were examined, and their adherence to the guidance measured. After the introduction of the guidelines in the form of a poster, and later a checklist, the adherence to guidelines rose from an average of 50% to 99%. Qualitative data suggested that although it took pharmacists slightly longer to clinically verify discharge prescriptions, the interventions resulted in a clear and helpful reminder to help improve discharge quality for the benefit of patient safety. This project highlights that small iterative changes made by a multidisciplinary project team can result in improvement of insulin discharge prescription quality. The sustainability and scale of the intervention may be improved by its integration into the electronic prescribing system so that all users may access and refer to the guidance when prescribing insulin for patients at the point of discharge.
    • Professional identity formation of pharmacy students during an early preregistration training placement

      Quinn, Gemma L.; Lucas, Beverley J.; Silcock, Jonathan (2020-01)
      Objective. To explore the lived experiences of pharmacy students undertaking an early pre-registration training placement in the United Kingdom, particularly with respect to the development of different aspects of their professionalism. Methods. Fourteen students returning from an early pre-registration placement (during the third year of their pharmacy degree) were interviewed, using a semi-structured approach. Grounded theory methods were used to analyze the transcripts and a theory was developed. Results. ʻDeveloping a professional identityʼ was the core process that occurred during the placement. This included four stages: (1) Reflection (2) Selection of attributes (3) Professional socialization and (4) Perception of role. As a consequence of ʻDeveloping a professional identityʼ, participants had a strong vision of the kind of pharmacist they wanted to be when qualified. They articulated an increased responsibility as students, and began to see themselves as ʻNow a trainee professionalʼ. Conclusion. This study strongly supports the use of an early pre-registration period to develop pharmacy students’ sense of professional identity and strengthen their motivation to learn.