• Cocrystal habit engineering to improve drug dissolution and alter derived powder properties

      Serrano, D.R.; O'Connell, P.; Paluch, Krzysztof J.; Walsh, D.; Healy, A.M. (2016-05)
      Objectives: Cocrystallization of sulfadimidine (SDM) with suitable coformers, such as 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA), combined with changes in the crystal habit can favourably alter its physicochemical properties. The aim of this work was to engineer SDM:4-ASA cocrystals with different habits in order to investigate the effect on dissolution, and the derived powder properties of flow and compaction. Methods: Cocrystals were prepared in a 1:1 molar ratio by solvent evaporation using ethanol (habit I) or acetone (habit II), solvent evaporation followed by grinding (habit III) and spray-drying (habit IV). Key findings: Powder X-ray diffraction showed Bragg peak position was the same in all the solid products. The peak intensity varied, indicating different preferred crystal orientation confirmed by SEM micrographs: large prismatic crystals (habit I), large plate-like crystals (habit II), small cube-like crystals (habit III) and microspheres (habit IV). The habit III exhibited the fasted dissolution rate; however, it underwent a polymorphic transition during dissolution. Habits I and IV exhibited the highest Carr’s compressibility index, indicating poor flowability. However, habits II and III demonstrated improved flow. Spray drying resulted in cocrystals with improved compaction properties. Conclusions: Even for cocrystals with poor pharmaceutical characteristics, a habit can be engineered to alter the dissolution, flowability and compaction behavior.
    • Polymorphism in sulfadimidine/4- aminosalicylic acid cocrystals: solid-state characterization and physicochemical properties

      Grossjohann, C.; Serrano, D.R.; Paluch, Krzysztof J.; O'Connell, P.; Vella-Zarb, L.; Manesiotis, P.; McCabe, T.; Tajber, L.; Corrigan, O.I.; Healy, A.M. (2015-04)
      Polymorphism of crystalline drugs is a common phenomenon. However, the number of reported polymorphic cocrystals is very limited. In this work, the synthesis and solid state characterisation of a polymorphic cocrystal composed of sulfadimidine (SD) and 4- aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA) is reported for the first time. By liquid-assisted milling, the SD:4-ASA 1:1 form I cocrystal, the structure of which has been previously reported, was formed. By spray drying, a new polymorphic form (form II) of the SD:4-ASA 1:1 cocrystal was discovered which could also be obtained by solvent evaporation from ethanol and acetone. Structure determination of the form II cocrystal was calculated using high resolution X-ray powder diffraction. The solubility of the SD:4-ASA 1:1 cocrystal was dependent on the pH and predicted by a model established for a two amphoteric component cocrystal. The form I cocrystal was found to be thermodynamically more stable in aqueous solution than form II, which showed transformation to form I. Dissolution studies revealed that the dissolution rate of SD from both cocrystals was enhanced when compared to a physical equimolar mixture and pure SD.