• Two-way effects of surfactants on Pickering emulsions stabilized by the self-assembled microcrystals of alpha-cyclodextrin and oil

      Li, X.; Li, H.; Xiao, Q.; Wang, L.; Wang, M.; Lu, X.; York, Peter; Shi, S.; Zhang, J. (2014)
      The influence of surfactants on the stability of cyclodextrin (CD) Pickering emulsions is not well understood. In this study, we report two-way effects of Tween 80 and soybean lecithin (PL) on the long term stability of Pickering emulsions stabilized by the self-assembled microcrystals of alpha-CD and medium chain triglycerides (MCT). The CD emulsions in the absence and presence of Tween 80 or PL at different concentrations were prepared and characterized by the droplet size, viscosity, contact angle, interfacial tension and residual emulsion values. After adding Tween 80 and PL, similar effects on the size distribution and contact angle were observed. However, changes of viscosity and interfacial tension were significantly different and two-way effects on the stability were found: (i) synergistic enhancement by Tween 80; (ii) inhibition at low and enhancement at high concentrations by PL. The stability enhancement of Tween 80 was due to the interfacial tension decrease caused by the interaction of Tween 80 with CD at the o/w interface at lower concentrations, and significant viscosity increase caused by the Tween 80-CD assembly in the continuous phase. For PL at low concentrations, the replacement of alpha-CD/MCT by alpha-CD/PL particles at the o/w interface was observed, leading to inhibitory effects. High concentrations of PL resulted in an extremely low interfacial tension and stable emulsion. In conclusion, the extensive inclusion of surfactants by CD leads to their unique effects on the stability of CD emulsions, for which the changes of viscosity and interfacial tension caused by host-guest interactions play important roles.