• One-Pot Synthesis of Highly Emissive Dipyridinium Dihydrohelicenes

      Santoro, A.; Lord, Rianne M.; Loughrey, J.J.; McGowan, P.C.; Halcrow, M.A.; Henwood, A.F.; Thomson, C.; Zysman-Colman, E. (2015-05)
      Condensation of a pyridyl-2-carbaldehyde derivative with 2-(bromoethyl)amine hydrobromide gave tetracyclic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrido[1’,2’:3,4]imidazo-[2,1-c]-6,7-dihydropyrazinium dications in excellent yields. Crystal structures and NOE data demonstrated the helical character of the dications, the dihedral angles between the two pyrido groups ranging from 28–458. An intermediate in the synthesis was also characterized. A much brighter emission compared to literature helicenes has been found, with quantum yields as high as 60% in the range of l=460– 600 nm. Preliminary cytotoxicity studies against HT-29 cancer cells demonstrated moderate-to-good activity, with IC50 values 12–30x that of cisplatin.