• Reduced keratin expression in colorectal neoplasia and associated fields is reversible by diet and resection

      Evans, C.A.; Rosser, R.; Waby, Jennifer S.; Noirel, J.; Lai, D.; Wright, P.C.; Williams, E.A.; Riley, S.A.; Bury, J.P.; Corfe, B.M. (2015-12-31)
      Patients with adenomatous colonic polyps are at increased risk of developing further polyps suggesting field-wide alterations in cancer predisposition. The current study aimed to identify molecular alterations in the normal mucosa in the proximity of adenomatous polyps and to assess the modulating effect of butyrate, a chemopreventive compound produced by fermentation of dietary residues. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in patients with adenomatous polyps: biopsy samples were taken from the adenoma, and from macroscopically normal mucosa on the contralateral wall to the adenoma and from the mid-sigmoid colon. In normal subjects biopsies were taken from the mid-sigmoid colon. Biopsies were frozen for proteomic analysis or formalin-fixed for immunohistochemistry. Proteomic analysis was undertaken using iTRAQ workflows followed by bioinformatics analyses. A second dietary fibre intervention study arm used the same endpoints and sampling strategy at the beginning and end of a high-fibre intervention. Key findings were that keratins 8, 18 and 19 were reduced in expression level with progressive proximity to the lesion. Lesional tissue exhibited multiple K8 immunoreactive bands and overall reduced levels of keratin. Biopsies from normal subjects with low faecal butyrate also showed depressed keratin expression. Resection of the lesion and elevation of dietary fibre intake both appeared to restore keratin expression level. Changes in keratin expression associate with progression towards neoplasia, but remain modifiable risk factors. Dietary strategies may improve secondary chemoprevention.