• Comparison of DNA damage in human lymphocytes from healthy individuals and asthma, COPD and lung cancer patients treated in vitro / ex vivo with the bulk nano forms of aspirin and ibuprofen

      Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Ali, Aftab H.M.; Jacobe, B.; Isreb, Mohammad; Gopalan, Rajendran C.; Shang, Lijun (2015)
      Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit COX enzyme activity, a significant mechanism of action of NSAIDs. Inflammation is associated with increasing cancer incidence. Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that NSAID treatment could cause an anti-tumour effect in cancers. Such studies are lengthy and expensive. The present study, however, examined DNA damage in the Comet and micronucleus assays in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with respiratory diseases and healthy individuals using the nanoparticle (NP) and bulk versions of the NSAIDs, aspirin and ibuprofen. Lymphocytes are suitable surrogate cells for cancers and other disease states. DNA damage decreased in lymphocytes from healthy individuals, asthma, COPD and lung cancer patient groups after treatment with aspirin nano-suspension (ASP N) and ibuprofen nano-suspension (IBU N) compared to their bulk version (micro-suspension) in both assays. However, when ASP N was compared to untreated lymphocytes in all groups in the Comet assay, DNA damage significantly decreased in all groups, except the asthma group. When IBU N was compared to untreated lymphocytes, in healthy individuals and the lung cancer group, DNA damage decreased, but increased in asthma and COPD groups. Similarly, micronuclei (MNi) increased after ASP N and IBU N in the healthy individual and lung cancer groups, and decreased in asthma and COPD groups. Also shows that whilst there are basic similarities with different genetic endpoints in terms of nano and bulk forms, but highlights some differences between the disease states examined. Furthermore, lymphocyte responses after IBU N and ibuprofen bulk were investigated by patch-clamp experiments demonstrating that IBU N inhibited ion channel activity by 20%. This molecular epidemiology approach mirrors pre-clinical and clinical findings, and provides new information using nanoparticles.
    • DNA damage in lymphocytes from healthy individuals and respiratory disease patients, treated ex vivo/in vitro with aspirin and ibuprofen nanoparticles compared to their bulk forms

      Anderson, Diana; Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Ali, Aftab H.M.; Jacobe, B.; Isreb, Mohammad; Gopalan, Rajendran C.; Shang, Lijun (2014)