• DNA Damage in Healthy Individuals and Respiratory Patients after Treating Whole Blood In vitro with the Bulk and Nano Forms of NSAIDs

      Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Normington, Charmaine; Jacob, B.K.; Isreb, Mohammad; Gopalan, Rajendran C.; Anderson, Diana (2016-09-28)
      Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit COX enzyme activity which affects the inflammatory response. Inflammation is associated with increasing cancer incidence. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that NSAID treatment could cause an anti-tumor effect in cancers. In the present study, blood was taken from healthy individuals (n = 17) and patients with respiratory diseases or lung cancer (n = 36). White blood cells (WBC) were treated with either a micro-suspension, i.e., bulk (B) or nano-suspension (N) of aspirin (ASP) or ibuprofen (IBU) up to 500 μg/ml in the comet assay and up to 125 μg/ml in the micronucleus assay. In this study results were compared against untreated lymphocytes and their corresponding treated groups. The results showed, that NSAIDs in their nano form significantly reduced the DNA damage in WBCs from lung cancer patients in bulk and nano compared to untreated lymphocytes. Also, there was a decrease in the level of DNA damage in the comet assay after treating WBCs from healthy individuals, asthma and COPD groups with aspirin N (ASP N) but not with IBU N. In addition, the number of micronuclei decreased after treatment with NSAIDs in their nano form (ASP N and IBU N) in the healthy as well as in the lung cancer group. However, this was not the case for micronucleus frequency in asthma and COPD patients. These data show that lymphocytes from different groups respond differently to treatment with ASP and IBU as measured by comet assay and micronucleus assay, and that the size of the suspended particles of the drugs affects responses.
    • DNA damage protection by bulk and nano forms of quercetin in lymphocytes of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exposed to the food mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinolone (IQ)

      Habas, Khaled S.A.; Abdulmwli, Mhamoued; Demir, E.; Jacob, B.K.; Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Anderson, Diana (2018-10)
      Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans, describes a group of lung conditions characterised by airflow limitation that is poorly reversible. The airflow limitation usually progresses slowly and is related to an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung to toxic particles. COPD is characterised by oxidative stress and an increased risk of lung carcinoma. The 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is one of a number of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines found mainly in well-cooked meats which are thus part of the regular diet. Antioxidants are very important in order to protect the cells against oxidative damage. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of IQ on the level of DNA damage and susceptibility to a potent mutagen in peripheral blood cells of COPD patients. DNA damage and the frequency of micronuclei (MNi) were evaluated using the Comet and micronucleus assays, respectively. Differential expressions of both mRNA and protein of the endogenous antioxidant enzyme catalase were evaluated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot analysis, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of bulk and nano forms of quercetin and their combination with IQ were examined. Results of the present study clearly demonstrated that MNi frequency in the peripheral blood lymphocytes exhibited a positive correlation with the DNA damage as evident from the different Comet assay parameters. Increase of the endogenous antioxidant catalase also showed there was a stimulation of this enzyme system by IQ. Whereas, the endogenous antioxidant quercetin significantly reduced oxidative stress in COPD patients and healthy individuals.
    • TiO2 NPs induce DNA damage in lymphocytes from healthy individuals and patients with respiratory diseases-An Ex vivo/In vitro Study

      Osman, Ilham F.; Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Sharma, Vyom; Shukla, Ritesh K; Jacob, B.K.; Dhawan, A.; Anderson, Diana (2018-01-01)
      Nanotechnology has preceded nanotoxicology and little is known of the effects of nanoparticles in human systems, let alone in diseased individuals. Therefore, the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with respiratory diseases [lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma] were compared with those in healthy Individuals, to determine differences in sensitivity to nanochemical insult. The Comet assay was performed according to recommended guidelines. The micronucleus assay and ras oncoprotein detection were conducted according to published standard methods. The results showed statistically significant concentration-dependent genotoxic effects of TiO2 NPs in both respiratory patient and control groups in the Comet assay. The TiO2 NPs caused DNA damage in a concentration dependent manner in both groups (respiratory and healthy controls) with the exception of the lowest TiO2 concentration (10 µg/ml) which did not induce significant damage in healthy controls (ns). When OTM data were used to compare the whole patient group and the control group, the patient group had more DNA damage (p > 0.001) with the exception of 10 µg/ml of TiO2 that caused less significant damage to patient lymphocytes (p < 0.05). Similarly, there was an increase in the pattern of cytogenetic damage measured in the MN assay without statistical significance except when compared to the negative control of healthy individuals. Furthermore, when modulation of ras p21 expression was investigated, regardless of TiO2 treatment, only lung cancer and COPD patients expressed measurable ras p21 levels. All results were achieved in the absence of cytotoxicity.
    • Using a Modified Lymphocyte Genome Sensitivity (LGS) Test or TumorScan Test to Detect Cancer at an Early Stage in Each Individual

      Anderson, Diana; Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Scally, Andy J.; Jacob, B.K.; Griffith, John; Chaha, R.; Linforth, R.; Soussaline, M.; Soussaline, F. (2019-01-03)
      Our previous case-control study observed isolated lymphocytes from 208 individuals and determined the differences in the sensitivity to genomic damage of lymphocytes derived from cancer patients, pre/suspect cancer patients and healthy volunteers using the Comet assay (Anderson et al, 2014). We adapted the LGS technique using a slightly different method and examined 700 more blood samples from 598 patients with cancer or suspected cancer and 102 healthy individuals. To help increase the sensitivity of the test and detect cancer at the level of each individual, we joined with the IMSTAR team who analysed our cells with their fully automated Pathfinder™ cell reader-analyser system. With this reading and analysis system 4,000 to 10,000 cells were able to be read per slide. The new test which is called TumorScan is a highly sensitive test to detect any cancer at an early stage through the response of the white blood cells to UV treatment. These patient blood samples have also been collected at the stage before confirming diagnosis and treatment. There were four of these individuals with cancer who had received anti-cancer treatment. The results from these patients showed a reverse pattern compared to non-treated cancer patients and followed the pattern seen in healthy individuals. The results are consistent with the early results as reported in the above 2014 paper. Given the results from these samples were in a particularly challenging subgroup, whose cancer status was difficult to distinguish, the data suggest that the technique using the TumorScan system could exceed the area under the ROC curve >93% obtained in the earlier study on a group basis, whereas this present study was to detect cancer at an early stage in each individual.
    • Zinc oxide nanoparticles affect the expression of p53, Ras p21 and JNKs: an ex vivo/in vitro exposure study in respiratory disease patients

      Kumar, A.; Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Jacob, B.K.; Dhawan, A.; Anderson, Diana (2015)
      Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are the mostly used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles in consumer products. This has increased the likelihood of human exposure to this engineered nanoparticle (ENPs) through different routes. At present, the majority of the studies concerning ZnO ENPs toxicity have been conducted using in vitro and in vivo systems. In this study, for the first time we assessed the effect of ZnO ENPs on the major cellular pathways in the lymphocytes of healthy individuals as well as in susceptible patients suffering from lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Using the differential expression analysis, we observed a significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent (10, 20 and 40 microg/ml for 6h) increase in the expression of tumour suppressor protein p53 (40, 60 and 110%); Ras p21 (30, 52 and 80%); c-Jun N-terminal kinases; JNKs) (28, 47 and 78%) in lung cancer patient samples treated with ZnO ENPs compared to healthy controls. A similar trend was also seen in COPD patient samples where a significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent increase in the expression of tumour suppressor protein p53 (26, 45 and 84%), Ras p21 (21, 40 and 77%), JNKs (17, 32 and 69%) was observed after 6h of ZnO ENPs treatment at the aforesaid concentrations. However, the increase in the expression profile of tested protein was not significant in the asthma patients as compared to controls. Our results reiterate the concern about the safety of ZnO ENPs in consumer products and suggest the need for a complete risk assessment of any new ENPs before its use.