• Agonist-induced PKC phosphorylation regulates GluK2 SUMOylation and kainate receptor endocytosis

      Konopacki, F.A.; Jaafari, N.; Rocca, D.L.; Wilkinson, K.A.; Chamberlain, S.E.; Rubin, P.; Kantamneni, Sriharsha; Mellor, J.R.; Henley, J.M. (2011)
      The surface expression and regulated endocytosis of kainate (KA) receptors (KARs) plays a critical role in neuronal function. PKC can modulate KAR trafficking, but the sites of action and molecular consequences have not been fully characterized. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification of the KAR subunit GluK2 mediates agonist-evoked internalization, but how KAR activation leads to GluK2 SUMOylation is unclear. Here we show that KA stimulation causes rapid phosphorylation of GluK2 by PKC, and that PKC activation increases GluK2 SUMOylation both in vitro and in neurons. The intracellular C-terminal domain of GluK2 contains two predicted PKC phosphorylation sites, S846 and S868, both of which are phosphorylated in response to KA. Phosphomimetic mutagenesis of S868 increased GluK2 SUMOylation, and mutation of S868 to a nonphosphorylatable alanine prevented KA-induced SUMOylation and endocytosis in neurons. Infusion of SUMO-1 dramatically reduced KAR-mediated currents in HEK293 cells expressing WT GluK2 or nonphosphorylatable S846A mutant, but had no effect on currents mediated by the S868A mutant. These data demonstrate that agonist activation of GluK2 promotes PKC-dependent phosphorylation of S846 and S868, but that only S868 phosphorylation is required to enhance GluK2 SUMOylation and promote endocytosis. Thus, direct phosphorylation by PKC and GluK2 SUMOylation are intimately linked in regulating the surface expression and function of GluK2-containing KARs.
    • Differential regulation of GABAB receptor trafficking by different modes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling

      Kantamneni, Sriharsha; Gonzàlez-Gonzàlez, I.M.; Luo, J.; Cimarosti, H.; Jacobs, S.C.; Jaafari, N.; Henley, J.M. (2014-01-14)
      Inhibitory GABAB receptors (GABABRs) can down-regulate most excitatory synapses in the CNS by reducing postsynaptic excitability. Functional GABABRs are heterodimers of GABAB1 and GABAB2 subunits and here we show that the trafficking and surface expression of GABABRs is differentially regulated by synaptic or pathophysiological activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Activation of synaptic NMDARs using a chemLTP protocol increases GABABR recycling and surface expression. In contrast, excitotoxic global activation of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDARs by bath application of NMDA causes the loss of surface GABABRs. Intriguingly, exposing neurons to extreme metabolic stress using oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) increases GABAB1 but decreases GABAB2 surface expression. The increase in surface GABAB1 involves enhanced recycling and is blocked by the NMDAR antagonist AP5. The decrease in surface GABAB2 is also blocked by AP5 and by inhibiting degradation pathways. These results indicate that NMDAR activity is critical in GABABR trafficking and function and that the individual subunits can be separately controlled to regulate neuronal responsiveness and survival.
    • SUMOylation Is Required for Glycine-Induced Increases in AMPA Receptor Surface Expression (ChemLTP) in Hippocampal Neurons

      Jaafari, N.; Konopacki, F.A.; Owen, T.F.; Kantamneni, Sriharsha; Rubin, P.; Craig, T.J.; Wilkinson, K.A.; Henley, J.M. (2013-01-11)
      Multiple pathways participate in the AMPA receptor trafficking that underlies long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission. Here we demonstrate that protein SUMOylation is required for insertion of the GluA1 AMPAR subunit following transient glycine-evoked increase in AMPA receptor surface expression (ChemLTP) in dispersed neuronal cultures. ChemLTP increases co-localisation of SUMO-1 and the SUMO conjugating enzyme Ubc9 and with PSD95 consistent with the recruitment of SUMOylated proteins to dendritic spines. In addition, we show that ChemLTP increases dendritic levels of SUMO-1 and Ubc9 mRNA. Consistent with activity dependent translocation of these mRNAs to sites near synapses, levels of the mRNA binding and dendritic transport protein CPEB are also increased by ChemLTP. Importantly, reducing the extent of substrate protein SUMOylation by overexpressing the deSUMOylating enzyme SENP-1 or inhibiting SUMOylation by expressing dominant negative Ubc9 prevent the ChemLTP-induced increase in both AMPAR surface expression and dendritic SUMO-1 mRNA. Taken together these data demonstrate that SUMOylation of synaptic protein(s) involved in AMPA receptor trafficking is necessary for activity-dependent increases in AMPAR surface expression.