• SGTA interacts with the proteasomal ubiquitin receptor Rpn13 via a carboxylate clamp mechanism

      Thapaliya, A.; Nyathi, Yvonne; Martínez-Lumbreras, S.; Krysztofinska, E.M.; Evans, N.J.; Terry, I.L.; High, S.; Isaacson, R.L. (2016-11)
      The fate of secretory and membrane proteins that mislocalize to the cytosol is decided by a collaboration between cochaperone SGTA (small, glutamine-rich, tetratricopeptide repeat protein alpha) and the BAG6 complex, whose operation relies on multiple transient and subtly discriminated interactions with diverse binding partners. These include chaperones, membrane-targeting proteins and ubiquitination enzymes. Recently a direct interaction was discovered between SGTA and the proteasome, mediated by the intrinsic proteasomal ubiquitin receptor Rpn13. Here, we structurally and biophysically characterize this binding and identify a region of the Rpn13 C-terminal domain that is necessary and sufficient to facilitate it. We show that the contact occurs through a carboxylate clamp-mediated molecular recognition event with the TPR domain of SGTA, and provide evidence that the interaction can mediate the association of Rpn13 and SGTA in a cellular context.
    • Structural complexity of the co-chaperone SGTA: a conserved C-terminal region is implicated in dimerization and substrate quality control

      Martínez-Lumbreras, S.; Krysztofinska, E.M.; Thapaliya, A.; Spilotros, A.; Matak-Vinkovic, D.; Salvadori, E.; Roboti, P.; Nyathi, Yvonne; Muench, J.H.; Roessler, M.M.; et al. (2018-07-11)
      Protein quality control mechanisms are essential for cell health and involve delivery of proteins to specific cellular compartments for recycling or degradation. In particular, stray hydrophobic proteins are captured in the aqueous cytosol by a co-chaperone, the small glutamine-rich, tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA), which facilitates the correct targeting of tail-anchored membrane proteins, as well as the sorting of membrane and secretory proteins that mislocalize to the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. Full-length SGTA has an unusual elongated dimeric structure that has, until now, evaded detailed structural analysis. The Cterminal region of SGTA plays a key role in binding a broad range of hydrophobic substrates, yet in contrast to the well-characterized N-terminal and TPR domains, there is a lack of structural information on the C-terminal domain. In this study, we present new insights into the conformation and organization of distinct domains of SGTA and show that the C-terminal domain possesses a conserved region essential for substrate processing in vivo. We show that the C-terminal domain region is characterized by α-helical propensity and an intrinsic ability to dimerize independently of the N-terminal domain. Based on the properties of different regions of SGTA that are revealed using cell biology, NMR, SAXS, Native MS, and EPR, we observe that its C-terminal domain can dimerize in the full-length protein and propose that this reflects a closed conformation of the substrate-binding domain. Our results provide novel insights into the structural complexity of SGTA and provide a new basis for mechanistic studies of substrate binding and release at the C-terminal region.