• The effect of homocysteine on cytokine production by human endothelial cells and monocytes.

      Dalal, S.; Parkin, Susan M.; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Nicolaou, Anna (2003)
      Background Hyperhomocysteinaemia is an independent risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. Although homocysteine has been shown to affect endothelial cell function, the mechanisms by which it induces disease states are still poorly understood. Here, we report the ability of homocysteine to influence inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by human saphenous vein endothelial cells, peripheral blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Methods Human saphenous vein endothelial cells, peripheral blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages were treated with homocysteine (0.1-5 mmol/L) for 4 and/or 24 h. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-¿, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6 and IL-8 production was measured in the cell culture media using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Interleukin-6 production by human saphenous vein endothelial cells was significantly stimulated following a 24-h treatment with homocysteine, whilst IL-8 concentrations were inhibited after both 4- and 24-h treatments. Homocysteine was also found to stimulate IL-1ß production by human peripheral blood monocytes and TNF-¿ production by monocyte-derived macrophages. Conclusions Overall, results from this study suggest that homocysteine alters the profile of cytokine/chemokine production by endothelial cells and macrophages. This altered profile may be important in the inflammatory events that initiate or enhance the development of atherosclerotic lesions.