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AbstractKnowledge of clinically and cost-effective wound management is an obvious requirement for surgeons, yet wound care education rarely features within the medical curriculum. As a result surgical trainees are often poorly placed to join in multidisciplinary wound management and may feel threatened when asked to manage wound complications. A vast range of dressing products exists yet robust evidence of the function and effectiveness of individual products is often lacking. An understanding of wound pathophysiology, a defined treatment goal and regular wound assessment combined with knowledge of basic wound dressing categories will provide guidance on product selection for different clinical situations and wound types.
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CitationVowden K and Vowden P (2017) Wound dressings: principles and practice. Surgery (Oxford). 35(9): 489-494.
Link to publisher’s versionhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.mpsur.2017.06.005
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Oestrogen promotes healing in a bacterial LPS model of delayed cutaneous wound repairCrompton, R.; Williams, H.; Ansell, David M.; Campbell, Laura; Holden, K.; Cruickshank, S.; Hardman, M.J. (2016-04)Wound infection is a major clinical problem, yet understanding of bacterial host interactions in the skin remains limited. Microbe-derived molecules, known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns, are recognised in barrier tissues by pattern-recognition receptors. In particular, the pathogen-associated molecular pattern, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of microbial cell walls and a specific ligand for Toll-like receptor 4, has been widely used to mimic systemic and local infection across a range of tissues. Here we administered LPS derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae, a species of bacteria that is emerging as a wound-associated pathogen, to full-thickness cutaneous wounds in C57/BL6 mice. Early in healing, LPS-treated wounds displayed increased local apoptosis and reduced proliferation. Subsequent healing progression was delayed with reduced re-epithelialisation, increased proliferation, a heightened inflammatory response and perturbed wound matrix deposition. Our group and others have previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of 17β-estradiol treatment across a range of preclinical wound models. Here we asked whether oestrogen would effectively promote healing in our LPS bacterial infection model. Intriguingly, co-treatment with 17β-estradiol was able to promote re-epithelialisation, dampen inflammation and induce collagen deposition in our LPS-delayed healing model. Collectively, these studies validate K. pneumoniae-derived LPS treatment as a simple yet effective model of bacterial wound infection, while providing the first indication that oestrogen could promote cutaneous healing in the presence of infection, further strengthening the case for its therapeutic use.
Wound dressings: principles and practiceVowden, Kath; Vowden, Peter (2014)Knowledge of clinically and cost-effective wound management is an obvious requirement for surgeons, yet wound care education rarely features within the medical curriculum. As a result surgical trainees are often poorly placed to join in multidisciplinary wound management and may feel threatened when asked to manage wound complications. A vast range of dressing products exists yet robust evidence of the function and effectiveness of individual products is often lacking. An understanding of wound pathophysiology, a defined treatment goal and regular wound assessment combined with knowledge of basic wound dressing categories will provide guidance on product selection for different clinical situations and wound types.
Health economic burden that wounds impose on the National Health Service in the UKGuest, J.F.; Ayoub, N.; McIlwraith, T.; Uchegbu, I.; Gerrish, A.; Weidlich, D.; Vowden, Kath; Vowden, Peter (2015-12-07)OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of wounds managed by the UK's National Health Service (NHS) in 2012/2013 and the annual levels of healthcare resource use attributable to their management and corresponding costs. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of the records of patients in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) Database. Records of 1000 adult patients who had a wound in 2012/2013 (cases) were randomly selected and matched with 1000 patients with no history of a wound (controls). Patients' characteristics, wound-related health outcomes and all healthcare resource use were quantified and the total NHS cost of patient management was estimated at 2013/2014 prices. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 69.0 years and 45% were male. 76% of patients presented with a new wound in the study year and 61% of wounds healed during the study year. Nutritional deficiency (OR 0.53; p<0.001) and diabetes (OR 0.65; p<0.001) were independent risk factors for non-healing. There were an estimated 2.2 million wounds managed by the NHS in 2012/2013. Annual levels of resource use attributable to managing these wounds and associated comorbidities included 18.6 million practice nurse visits, 10.9 million community nurse visits, 7.7 million GP visits and 3.4 million hospital outpatient visits. The annual NHS cost of managing these wounds and associated comorbidities was pound5.3 billion. This was reduced to between pound5.1 and pound4.5 billion after adjusting for comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Real world evidence highlights wound management is predominantly a nurse-led discipline. Approximately 30% of wounds lacked a differential diagnosis, indicative of practical difficulties experienced by non-specialist clinicians. Wounds impose a substantial health economic burden on the UK's NHS, comparable to that of managing obesity ( pound5.0 billion). Clinical and economic benefits could accrue from improved systems of care and an increased awareness of the impact that wounds impose on patients and the NHS.