Improving Community Pharmacy Consultations for People with Depression
MetadataView full catalogue record
KeywordsCommunity pharmacy; Consultation skills; Patient satisfaction; Depression; Medicines adherence; Consumer medicines information; Continuing professional development; Medical simulation
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Pharmacy
Aims The aims of this study were to increase community pharmacists’ willingness and confidence to provide consultations for people with depression, and to enhance patients’ awareness of the pharmacists’ developing role. Research Design To observe pharmacist-patient consultations, the researcher developed a patient scenario. Pharmacist knowledge and attitude questionnaires were adapted, and a skills observation checklist was developed. Assessments of patient satisfaction levels took place before and after pharmacist training, which included a simulated consultation and action planning. The consultations were both video recorded and observed. Participants undertook a short interview with the researcher and each pharmacist developed his/her own plan for continuing professional development (CPD). An exploration of the interview transcripts was undertaken qualitatively. A University Ethics Panel approved the project. Results There were twenty-two pharmacists who took part in the study, comprising eighteen males and four females. MPharm students comprised one female and two males, and community pharmacists made up three females and sixteen males. The quantitative results: It was found that pharmacists possessed appropriate knowledge (the mean score was 75%, which showed that the pharmacists were aware of the safety and action of anti-depressants). The mean score for attitude was 54%, which tends towards the positive. When observing the simulated consultations, the mean score for initiating a consultation session was recorded at 28%. This indicates that the pharmacists were not very interested in initiating rapport with patients. However, the highest mean score calculated was 61%, which corresponded with closing a consultation. For data collection and action, the mean scores were 42% and 35%, respectively, and this indicates the need for improvement in these areas. The qualitative findings: The pharmacists demonstrated good knowledge about anti-depressants and held positive attitudes towards people with depression. However, the pharmacists were not very willing to exercise the responsibilities of their extended role or provide additional services for patients. The pharmacists lacked certain skills and opportunities to be able to enhance the patients’ satisfaction. The pharmacists in this study needed to improve their soft skills in some areas and engage in mutual discussion with patients in order to enhance patients’ expectations with the service provided. Conclusion/discussion The knowledge and attitude of pharmacists were good, but their consultation skills could be improved. Although simulated consultation allowed pharmacists to review their skills and practice the apparent impact on patient care was limited. This study has enable greater understanding of pharmacist strategies when consulting people with depression, and the findings could be used by those developing training programmes for enhancing pharmacists skills.