Elementary School Attendance in Bradford 1863-1903: A Study Using School Log Books.
AuthorJackson, John Charles
SupervisorJennings, Benjamin R.
KeywordEducation; Bradford; School log books; Elementary school; School attendance; Nineteenth Century
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentFaculty of Life Sciences
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AbstractThis thesis examines the issue of elementary school attendance in later nineteenth century Bradford. It seeks to do this by means of a little used source: the school log book. The focus of the study is on the experiences of head teachers who faced a constant struggle to achieve and maintain an acceptable level of attendance in Bradford where child employment in the flourishing textile industry had long been an inherent feature of working class life. It investigates broader issues affecting attendance in the context of prevailing social, cultural, religious, and economic factors. While the significant and influential pressures on attendance in Bradford were to be found elsewhere (for example, parental apathy; hostility to compulsory attendance; child labour; health and welfare), this investigation discovers that the town’s problems were compounded and made difficult by its phenomenal growth and rapid emergence by the middle of the nineteenth century as the undisputed capital of the world’s worsted manufacturing trade. It concludes that in the study of Victorian elementary school attendance Bradford deserves greater recognition in consideration of the tension between the demands of the most prolific half-time system of employment in the country, and prevailing attitudes to the introduction of universal elementary education in England and Wales.
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Academies, managerialism and school teachers’ working lives: a labour process perspectiveMorrell, Sophie E. (2018)The English school sector has been transformed over recent decades through wide-ranging education policies. One far-reaching change has been the dramatic rise in academy schools driven by the Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition (2010-2015) (Stevenson 2016), with 64.7% of secondary state-funded schools now holding academy status (Department for Education 2018). A central issue emerging from this context is the changes to school teachers’ pay and working conditions, given that autonomy over employment terms and conditions transfer from local authorities to operating education trusts under the academy model (see Academies Act 2010). Stevenson (2011) importantly argued that rather than establishing new directions in education policy, recent changes – such as the academy expansion enterprise – solidify the long-standing trajectory of restructuring to public education, underpinned by neoliberal ideologies. Such projects seek to fragment a public service accountable to local authorities, superseding it with a state-subsidised system buttressed by predominantly private investors (Stevenson 2011); pressing schools into competition for students and resources (Connell 2009). Dovetailed in this setting, a significant study by Carter and Stevenson (2012:491), exploring workforce remodelling in teaching, found strong evidence for “an accelerated form of creeping managerialism,” with middle-grade teachers carrying increasing responsibility for the monitoring of colleagues. The combined effects of markets and managerialism, that bolster the grander-scale neoliberal project, have worked in unison to fundamentally recast teachers’ experiences of work (Stevenson and Wood 2013). Currently in its analytical phase, this PhD study, informed by a labour process theoretical (LPT) perspective, set out to explore (1) the various formal and informal structures and processes (control strategies) that impact on school teachers’ work, (2) how teachers experience those control strategies, (3) teachers’ orientations to work and (4) how teachers’ orientations to work interrelate with their experiences of control strategies. Several scholars employ an LPT perspective to facilitate critical studies of teachers’ work (for examples see Carter and Stevenson 2012; Stevenson and Wood 2013). Yet there remains a paucity of research that takes an LPT approach to the in-depth interpretive analysis of teachers’ work. Inspired by a call from Reid (2003) for research that combines LPT with detailed single-site ethnographic accounts, a qualitative ethnography of one academy school in Northern England was conducted over a four-month period. This comprised interviews with 26 teachers, senior managers, HR and trade union representatives; a six-week shadowing period; non-participant observations and document collection. This article focuses on two key issues relating to the impact of academies and widespread managerialism on teachers’ work experiences: working time and teaching preparation. In particular, it highlights the erosion of autonomy previously given to teachers to manage their own time, lessons and resources; with accounts of increased frustration at the rising mechanisation of teaching. The central contribution of this paper, therefore, is the application of LPT to the context of contemporary teachers’ work in England, to gain an in-depth understanding of the impact of academies and widespread managerialism on school teachers’ working lives.
Factors associated with accelerometer measured movement behaviours among White British and South Asian children aged 6-8 years during school terms and school holidays.Nagy, Liana C.; Faisal, Muhammad; Horne, M.; Collins, P.; Barber, S.; Mohammed, Mohammed A. (2019-08)To investigate factors associated with movement behaviours among White British (WB) and South Asian (SA) children aged 6-8 years during school terms and holidays. Cross-sectional. Three primary schools from the Bradford area, UK. One hundred and sixty WB and SA children aged 6-8 years. Sedentary behaviour (SB), light physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) measured by accelerometry during summer, winter and spring and during school terms and school holidays. Data were analysed using multivariate mixed-effects multilevel modelling with robust SEs. Factors of interest were ethnicity, holiday/term, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), weight status, weekend/weekday and season. One hundred and eight children (67.5%) provided 1157 valid days of data. Fifty-nine per cent of children were WB (n=64) and 41% (n=44) were SA. Boys spent more time in MVPA (11 min/day, p=0.013) compared with girls and SA children spent more time in SB (39 min, p=0.017) compared with WB children in adjusted models. Children living in higher SES areas were more sedentary (43 min, p=0.006) than children living in low SES areas. Children were more active during summer (15 min MVPA, p<0.001; 27 LPA, p<0.001) and spring (15 min MVPA, p=0.005; 38 min LPA, p<0.001) and less sedentary (−42 min and −53 min, p<0.001) compared with winter. Less time (8 min, p=0.012) was spent in LPA during school terms compared with school holidays. Children spent more time in MVPA (5 min, p=0.036) during weekend compared with weekdays. Overweight and obese children spent more time in LPA (21 min, p=0.021) than normal-weight children. The results of our study suggest that significant child level factors associated with movement behaviours are ethnicity, sex, weight-status and area SES. Significant temporal factors are weekends, school holidays and seasonality. Interventions to support health enhancing movement behaviours may need to be tailored around these factors.
Visual corporate identity and internal customer perceptions : Employee response to corporate colours and symbols in an education environment.Trueman, Myfanwy; Fukukawa, Kyoko; Holland, Annabelle J.M. (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2013-11-20)This thesis examines the importance of employee perceptions of their organisation¿s visual corporate identity (VCI) particularly the symbolic ¿corporate logo¿. Employees¿ views of the logo reveal their perceptions of the organisation itself (Henderson and Cote 1998:15, Olins 1995:73) so are an important indicator of their positive or negative feelings towards their establishment. Previous research recognises the significance of employees¿ opinions, but has overlooked their perceptions of the VCI. In education, external marketing (including VCI) is of growing interest but there has been little concern with internal marketing. Methodology A mixed methods, sequential, explanatory case study into a UK independent school was undertaken. Quantitative data was obtained from questionnaires, distributed to the schools¿ employees and qualitative data from interviews; analysis reveals convergent and divergent findings.Findings The majority of the schools¿ employees consider the corporate colours and logo important, associate positive meanings with the logo and were proud to be linked to the school by wearing branded items. Employees felt affiliation for the logo and considered the VCI to be strong although responses differed depending upon gender, full or part-time employment, department, seniority and length-of-service. A new model has been developed, the IMP Test, that reveals the perceptions; the importance, meanings, and pride that employees attach to their VCI. Implications These findings reinforce and add to previous research of employee perceptions of their VCI (particularly in education) and it follows, towards their organisation. Utilising this approach, managers can gain a deeper understanding of employee perceptions which has implications for morale and motivation.