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dc.contributor.authorTowers, Jacqueline R.*
dc.contributor.authorMainland, Ingrid L.*
dc.contributor.authorMontgomery, Janet*
dc.contributor.authorBond, Julie M.*
dc.date.accessioned2017-11-02T09:40:39Z
dc.date.available2017-11-02T09:40:39Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier.citationTowers J, Mainland I, Montgomery J et al (2017) Calving seasonality at Pool, Orkney during the first millennium AD: an investigation using intra-tooth isotope ratio analysis of cattle molar enamel. Environmental Archaeology. 22(1): 40-55.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/13620
dc.descriptionYesen_US
dc.description.abstractThe identification of dairying is essential if we are to understand economies of the past, particularly in northwest Europe, where a high degree of lactose tolerance suggests that fresh milk has long been a significant food product. This paper explores a possible link between economic focus and seasonality of calving. Although cattle (Bos taurus) can breed throughout the year, animals living in temperate regions with minimal or no human management tend to breed seasonally, their breeding behaviour being strongly influenced by the availability of food. In order to achieve a year-round supply of fresh milk in the past, it is likely that multiple-season calving was necessary, which would have required additional husbandry effort. Alternatively, for meat-focussed economies or those based on storable dairy products, a strategy of single-season calving in spring may have been favoured to maximise the utilization of spring and summer vegetation. Cattle birth seasonality is investigated through isotope ratio analysis (δ18O, δ13C) of tooth enamel. Results for cattle from Pool, Orkney dating to the latter part of the first millennium A.D suggest that calving occurred during at least three seasons implying that the continuous provision of fresh milk was of economic importance.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipAHRC Studentshipen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.relation.isreferencedbyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14614103.2015.1116214en_US
dc.rights© Association for Environmental Archaeology 2016. The Version of Record of this manuscript has been published and is available in Environmental Archaeology http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/14614103.2015.1116214en_US
dc.subjectCattle; Birth seasonality; Dairying; Fresh milk; Carbon and oxygen stable isotopes; Tooth enamel; Orkneyen_US
dc.titleCalving seasonality at Pool, Orkney during the first millennium AD: an investigation using intra-tooth isotope ratio analysis of cattle molar enamelen_US
dc.status.refereedYesen_US
dc.date.application2016-01-06
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.type.versionAccepted Manuscripten_US
refterms.dateFOA2018-07-28T02:09:02Z


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