Circulating tumour DNA: a minimally invasive biomarker for tumour detection and stratification
Rights© 2016 The Authors. This article is distributed under the Creative Commons CC-BY licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractGenetic and epigenetic alterations significantly contribute to development of human cancer. Genotyping tumour tissue in search for these actionable genetic and epigenetic changes has become routine practice in oncology. However, sampling tumour tissue has significant inherent limitations. It provides only a single snapshot in time, prone to selection bias due to intra-tumour heterogeneity, and cannot always be performed owing to its invasive nature. Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) based liquid biopsy provides an effective alternative to invasive tissue sampling and have emerged as a minimally invasive, real-time biomarker. Recent advancements in DNA sequencing technologies have revealed enormous potential of ctDNA to improve tumour detection and stratification. In this review, we critically appraise the role of ctDNA as a liquid biopsy for cancer and evaluate the role of circulating tumour DNA as a diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarker. We also highlight some technical challenges and constraints associated with circulating DNA analysis.
CitationSurani AA and Poterlowicz K (2016) Circulating tumour DNA: a minimally invasive biomarker for tumour detection and stratification. British Journal of Pharmacy. 1(1)
Link to publisher’s versionhttp://dx.doi.org/10.5920/bjpharm.2016.07
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Role of the bone morphogenetic protein signalling in skin carcinogenesis. Effect of transgenic overexpression of BMP antognist Noggin on skin tumour development; molecular mechanisms underlying tumour suppressive role of the BMP signalling in skin.Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Mardaryev, Andrei N. (University of BradfordCentre for Skin Sciences, Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, 2010-06-01)Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling plays key roles in skin development and also possesses a potent anti-tumour activity in postnatal skin. To study mechanisms of the tumour-suppressive role of BMPs in the skin, a transgenic (TG) mouse model was utilized, in which a transgenic expression of the BMP antagonist Noggin was targeted to the epidermis and hair follicles (HFs) via Keratin 14 promoter. K14-Noggin mice developed spontaneous HF-derived tumours, which resembled human trichofolliculoma. Initiation of the tumours was associated with a marked increase in cell proliferation and an expansion of the hair follicle stem/early progenitor cells. In addition, the TG mice showed hyperplastic changes in the sebaceous glands and the interfollicular epidermis. The epidermal hyperplasia was associated with an increase in the susceptibility to chemically-induced carcinogenesis and earlier malignant transformation of chemically-induced papillomas. Global gene expression profiling revealed that development of the trichofolliculomas was associated with an increase in the expression of the components of several pro-oncogenic signalling pathways (Wnt, Shh, PDGF, Ras, etc.). Specifically, expression of the Wnt ligands and (¿-catenin/Lef1 markedly increased at the initiation stage of tumour formation. In contrast, expression of components of the Shh pathway was markedly increased in the fully developed tumours, compared to the tumour placodes. Pharmacological treatment of the TG mice with the Wnt and Shh antagonists resulted in the stage-dependent inhibition of the tumour initiation and progression, respectively. Further studies revealed that BMP signalling antagonizes the activity of the Wnt and Shh pathways via distinct mechanisms, which include direct regulation of the expression of the tumour suppressor Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1) and indirect effects on the Shh expression. Thus, tumour suppressor activity of the BMPs in skin epithelium depends on the local concentrations of Noggin and is mediated, at least in part, via stage-dependent antagonizing of the Wnt and Shh signalling pathways.
Characterization of the cytotoxic activity of the indoloquinoline alkaloid cryptolepine in human tumour cell lines and primary cultures of tumour cells from patients.Laryea, D.; Isaksson, A.; Wright, Colin W.; Larsson, R.; Nygren, P. (Springer, 2009)The plant derived indoloquinoline alkaloid cryptolepine was investigated for its cytotoxic properties in 12 human tumour cell lines and in primary cultures of tumour cells from patients. The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay was used to assess cytotoxicity and DNA mocro-array analysis to evaluate gene expression. Cryptolepine mean IC50 in the cell line panel was 0.9 microM compared with 1.0 and 2.8 microM in haemaotological and solid tumour malignancies respectively. Among patient solid tumour samples, those from breast cancer were the most sensitive and essentially as sensitive as haematological malignancies, respectively. Among patient solid tumour samples, those from breast cancer were the most sensitive and essentially as senstive as haematological malignancies. Cryptolepine activity showed highest correlations to topoisomerase II and microtubule targetting drugs. In the cell lines cryptolepine activity was essentially unaffected by established mechanisms of drug resistance. A number of genes were identified as associated with cryptolepine activity. In conclusion, cryptolepine shows interesting in vitro cytotoxic properties and its further evaluation as an anticancer drug seems warranted.
Immunohistochemical analysis of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase in human superficial bladder tumours: Relationship between tumour enzymology and clinical outcome following intravesical mitomycin C therapyBasu, Saurajyoti; Brown, John E.; Flannigan, G. Michael; Gill, Jason H.; Loadman, Paul M.; Naylor, Brian; Scally, Andy J.; Seargent, Jill M.; Shah, Tariq K.; Puri, Rajiv; et al. (2004)A central theme within the concept of enzyme-directed bioreductive drug development is the potential to predict tumour response based on the profiling of enzymes involved in the bioreductive activation process. Mitomycin C (MMC) is the prototypical bioreductive drug that is reduced to active intermediates by several reductases including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R). The purpose of our study was to determine whether NQO1 and P450R protein expression in a panel of low-grade, human superficial bladder tumours correlates with clinical response to MMC. A retrospective clinical study was conducted in which the response to MMC of 92 bladder cancer patients was compared to the immunohistochemical expression of NQO1 and P450R protein in archived paraffin-embedded bladder tumour specimens. A broad spectrum of NQO1 protein levels exists in bladder tumours between individual patients, ranging from intense to no immunohistochemical staining. In contrast, levels of P450R were similar with most tumours having moderate to high levels. All patients were chemotherapy naïve prior to receiving MMC and clinical response was defined as the time to first recurrence. A poor correlation exists between clinical response and NQO1, P450R or the expression patterns of various combinations of the 2 proteins. The results of our study demonstrate that the clinical response of superficial bladder cancers to MMC cannot be predicted on the basis of NQO1 and/or P450R protein expression and suggest that other factors (other reductases or post DNA damage events) have a significant bearing on tumour response.