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dc.contributor.authorCheuk, D.*
dc.contributor.authorSvärd, M.*
dc.contributor.authorSeaton, Colin C.*
dc.contributor.authorMcArdle, P.*
dc.contributor.authorRasmuson, Å.C.*
dc.date.accessioned2016-11-02T15:36:34Z
dc.date.available2016-11-02T15:36:34Z
dc.date.issued2015-06-07
dc.identifier.citationCheuk D, Svärd M, Seaton CC et al (2015) Investigation into solid and solution properties of quinizarin. CrystEngComm.17(21): 3985-3997.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/10189
dc.descriptionYesen_US
dc.description.abstractPolymorphism, crystal shape and solubility of 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (quinizarin) have been investigated in acetic acid, acetone, acetonitrile, n-butanol and toluene. The solubility of FI and FII from 20 °C to 45 °C has been determined by a gravimetric method. By slow evaporation, pure FI was obtained from n-butanol and toluene, pure FII was obtained from acetone, while either a mixture of the two forms or pure FI was obtained from acetic acid and acetonitrile. Slurry conversion experiments have established an enantiotropic relationship between the two polymorphs and that the commercially available FI is actually a metastable polymorph of quinizarin under ambient conditions. However, in the absence of FII, FI is kinetically stable for many days over the temperature range and in the solvents investigated. FI and FII have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission and ordinary powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) at different temperatures. The crystal structure of FII has been determined by single-crystal XRD. DSC and high-temperature PXRD have shown that both FI and FII will transform into a not previously reported high-temperature form (FIII) around 185 °C before this form melts at 200–202 °C. By indexing FIII PXRD data, a triclinic P[1 with combining macron] cell was assigned to FIII. The solubility of quinizarin FI and FII in the pure organic solvents used in the present work is below 2.5% by weight and decreases in the order: toluene, acetone, acetic acid, acetonitrile and n-butanol. The crystal shapes obtained in different solvents range from thin rods to flat plates or very flat leaves, with no clear principal difference observed between FI and FII.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipSFI; Swedish Research Councilen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.relation.isreferencedbyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5ce00147aen_US
dc.rights(c) 2015 The Authors. This is an Open Access article published under the Creative Commons CC-BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)en_US
dc.subjectCrystallisation; Nucleation; Polymorphismen_US
dc.titleInvestigation into solid and solution properties of quinizarinen_US
dc.status.refereedYesen_US
dc.date.Accepted2015-04-21
dc.date.application2015-04-21
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.type.versionPublished versionen_US
refterms.dateFOA2018-07-27T01:38:12Z


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