The prediction of blood–tissue partitions, water–skin partitions and skin permeation for agrochemicals
KeywordLFER; Abraham descriptors; Blood–tissue partition; Air–tissue partition; Water–skin partition: Skin permeation
Rights© 2014 Wiley. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: [Abraham MH, Gola JMR, Ibrahim A et al. (2014) The prediction of blood-tissue partitions, water-skin partitions and skin permeation for agrochemicals. Pest Management Science. 70(7): 1130-1137], which has been published in final form at [http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.3658]. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractBACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in the blood–tissue distribution of agrochemicals, and a number of researchershave developed experimental methods for in vitro distribution. These methods involve the determination of saline–blood andsaline–tissue partitions; not only are they indirect, but they do not yield the required in vivo distribution.RESULTS: The authors set out equations for gas–tissue and blood–tissue distribution, for partition from water into skin andfor permeation from water through human skin. Together with Abraham descriptors for the agrochemicals, these equationscan be used to predict values for all of these processes. The present predictions compare favourably with experimental in vivoblood–tissue distribution where available. The predictions require no more than simple arithmetic.CONCLUSIONS: The present method represents a much easier and much more economic way of estimating blood–tissuepartitions than the method that uses saline–blood and saline–tissue partitions. It has the added advantages of yielding therequired in vivo partitions and being easily extended to the prediction of partition of agrochemicals from water into skin andpermeation from water through skin.
CitationAbraham MH, Gola JMR, Ibrahim A et al. (2014) The prediction of blood-tissue partitions, water-skin partitions and skin permeation for agrochemicals. Pest Management Science. 70(7): 1130-1137.
Link to publisher’s versionhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.3658
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Analytical Modelling and Optimization of Congestion Control for Prioritized Multi-Class Self-Similar TrafficMin, Geyong; Jin, X. (2013)Traffic congestion in communication networks can dramatically deteriorate user-perceived Quality-of-Service (QoS). The integration of the Random Early Detection (RED) and priority scheduling mechanisms is a promising scheme for congestion control and provisioning of differentiated QoS required by multimedia applications. Although analytical modelling of RED congestion control has received significant research efforts, the performance models reported in the current literature were primarily restricted to the RED algorithm only without consideration of traffic scheduling scheme for QoS differentiation. Moreover, for analytical tractability, these models were developed under the simplified assumption that the traffic follows Short-Range-Dependent (SRD) arrival processes (e.g., Poisson or Markov processes), which are unable to capture the self-similar nature (i.e., scale-invariant burstiness) of multimedia traffic in modern communication networks. To fill these gaps, this paper presents a new analytical model of RED congestion control for prioritized multi-class self-similar traffic. The closed-form expressions for the loss probability of individual traffic classes are derived. The effectiveness and accuracy of the model are validated through extensive comparison between analytical and simulation results. To illustrate its application, the model is adopted as a cost-effective tool to investigate the optimal threshold configuration and minimize the required buffer space with congestion control.
A new paradigm for disc-pad interface models in friction brake systemQiu, L.; Qi, Hong Sheng; Wood, Alastair S. (2015)In this paper a 2D coupled thermal-stress finite element model is established and used to predict thermal phenomena at the disc-pad interface of a disc brake system. The importance of certain critical settings and parameters for the 2D FE model has been identified (such as, a limited degree of freedom for a brake pad in place of accepted practice that considers uniform contact), here a non-uniform pressure distribution resulting from friction bending moment effects due to the introduction of a pivot point. These parameters affect the distributions of both interface temperature and pressure. The simulation results show that when the interface conductance h is 10^6 W/m^2K or higher, the interface temperature distribution is no longer sensitive to friction bending moment effects. However, when h is 30000 W/m^2K or lower, the interface temperature distribution and heat partition ratio are significantly affected by the setting used for the rotational degree of freedom of the pad. The simulation results provide a useful reference for a better design of a disc brake system for different applications.
A simple method for estimating in vitro air-tissue and in vivo blood-tissue partition coefficientsAbraham, M.H.; Gola, J.M.R.; Ibrahim, A.; Acree, W.E. Jr.; Liu, Xiangli (2015-02)A simple method is reported for the estimation of in vivo air-tissue partition coefficients of VOCs and of in vitro blood-tissue partition coefficients for volatile organic compounds and other compounds. Linear free energy relationships for tissues such as brain, muscle, liver, lung, kidney, heart, skin and fat are available and once the Abraham descriptors are known for a compound, no more than simple arithmetic is required to estimate air-tissue and blood-tissue partitions.